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  Readabiblity(可讀性)관련 해외 석박사학위논문초록(2003.12월 기준)
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독서치료에서 텍스트와 관련하여 연구되어야할 부분이 책의 가독성(readabiblity)에 관한 분야입니다. 다음 논문초록은 riss4u.net에서 "readabiblity"라는 키워드로 검색한 자료입니다.

Title: ACHIEVEMENT IN AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
UNITED STATES HISTORY WITH REDUCED READABILITY TEXTS.
Pub No: 7428161
Author: CERVONE, EDMUND VINCENT
Degree: EDD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1974
Pages: 119
Source: DAI-A 35/06, p. 3508, Dec 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

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Title: A CLOZE TEST ASSESSMENT OF NIGERIAN STUDENTS' READING
ABILITY, TEXT READABILITY, AND AN ASSESSMENT OF
INSTRUCTIONAL METHODOLOGY WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR
INSTRUCTIONAL DECISION-MAKING.
Pub No: 7810019
Author: ANDERSON, NORMAN DONALD
Degree: PHD
School: MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 180
Source: DAI-A 39/01, p. 82, Jul 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

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Title: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE READABILITY AND READING
RATES OF CAPTIONED FILMS WITH COMPREHENSION LEVELS AND
READING RATES OF DEAF STUDENTS.
Pub No: 7402086
Author: SHROYER, EDGAR H.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1973
Pages: 130
Source: DAI-A 34/08, p. 4936, Feb 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, SPECIAL (0529)

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Title: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE
READING ACHIEVEMENT OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS AND THE
READABILITY LEVEL OF PROFESSIONAL LITERATURE
Pub No: 8102785
Author: SQUIRES, MARGARET MAY
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
Date: 1980
Pages: 145
Source: DAI-A 41/08, p. 3539, Feb 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between the
reading achievement of prospective teachers and the
readability level of their professional literature. The
prospective teachers were defined as juniors and seniors
admitted to the Professional Program in the College of
Education at the University of South Carolina--Columbia.
Three types of education majors--early childhood,
elementary and secondary--were of concern, so stratified
random sampling was done. The professional literature was
defined as training materials and job-related materials.
These materials consisted of education textbooks, teacher
editions and education journals.
In order to assess the reading ability of the prospective
teachers, the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Revised Form A
was administered. Three cloze tests using every fifth
word deletion were also administered. The cloze tests
were based on a passage from an education textbook, a
teacher edition and an education journal.
The Dale-Chall Readability Formula was calculated by
using the Minnesota Interactive Readability Program.
Education textbooks, teacher editions and education
journals for each of the three types of education majors
were analyzed.
The results indicated that on the average these
prospective teachers were occupationally literate. The
teacher editions and education textbooks were within the
independent or instructional reading levels of all three
groups of prospective teachers. However, the education
journals on the average were written at the frustrational
reading level of all three groups of prospective
teachers. Perhaps this difficult readability level
accounts for the low readership of education journals.


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Title: A COMPARATIVE INVESTIGATION OF THE READABILITY LEVEL OF
SELECTED SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTS AND SELECTED READING TEXTS
FROM THE NEW MEXICO STATE ADOPTED TEXTBOOKS.
Author: CARLETON, VIRGINIA DORIS BRUTON
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO
Date: 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF READABILITY FORMULAS APPLIED TO
COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7912530
Author: WOOD, WESTA WINN
Degree: PHD
School: KENT STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 192
Source: DAI-A 39/12, p. 7259, Jun 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF READABILITY OF VOCATIONAL MATERIAL
AND THE READING ABILITY OF THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS
AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL
Pub No: 8027684
Author: SMITH, ROY LEE
Degree: EDD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1980
Pages: 100
Source: DAI-A 41/06, p. 2577, Dec 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL (0747)
Abstract: Purpose of the Study. The purposes of the study were as
follows: (1) to determine the readability level of
required reading materials used in a specific Texas
vocational high school in vocational industrial pre-
employment laboratory courses, (2) to compare the results
with the reading ability of Mexican-American students
enrolled in selected vocational industrial courses during
the 1978-79 school year, (3) to identify instructional
reading materials required for students in vocational
industrial programs, and (4) to assess the attitudes
regarding the relationship of reading to success in each
craft area.
Procedure. For purposes of this study, the Mexican-
American vocational industrial education students were
identified by surnames from current class rolls at the
selected vocational high school. Of the 367 vocational
education students with Mexican-American surnames, 171
students had been tested on a standardized achievement
test which yielded a scaled reading score. These scores
were converted from scaled scores to grade level
equivalents.
Each vocational industrial education instructor was
interviewed to determine the nature and scope of required
reading materials for the vocational industrial students
for each area of instruction. Once the required reading
materials for each area of instruction had been
identified, the materials were evaluated for readability.
The instrument used for assessing the readability level
of the material was the Flesch Reading Ease Formula. The
grade levels of the materials were then compared to the
reading levels of the students.
Findings. The data in this descriptive study yielded the
following: (1) Instructors in the vocational high school
agreed that reading was important in order to achieve
success in each specific craft area. (2) Vocational
instructors required students to do independent reading,
both in and out of class. (3) Required reading materials
included textbooks, instructional manuals, and a
workbook. (4) The data collected revealed that 130, or
76.01 percent, of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade
Mexican-American vocational industrial students read
below the tenth grade level. (5) Of the 171 Mexican-
American vocational students, 14.62 percent had reading
scores two grade levels below the readability level of
the required reading materials; and 49.13 percent had
reading scores three or more grade levels below the
readability level of the required reading materials. (6)
With the exception of drafting, the mean readability
level of materials in each craft area was above the mean
reading level of the vocational students. The difference
ranged from a negative 9.7 grade levels in the area of
electrical trades to a negative .5 grade level in the
area of masonry. (7) The required reading materials had
readability levels ranging from grade level seven through
grade level sixteen.
Conclusions. The following conclusions are based on the
findings of this investigation: (1) Instructors of
vocational industrial education are aware of the
importance of students being able to read in order to
succeed in their individual trade areas. (2) It appears
that the instructors in vocational industrial education
classes are not aware of the readability levels of their
required reading materials or the reading abilities of
their students. (3) Most of the required reading
materials are written at higher grade levels than many
Mexican-American vocational education students can
comprehend at a meaningful level. (4) Many Mexican-
American students are reading significantly below their
school grade level. (5) An overwhelming number of the
Mexican-American students enrolled in vocational
industrial education pre-employment laboratory classes
can be classified as disabled readers.


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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF READABILITY SCORES OF CHILDREN'S
WRITTEN COMPOSITIONS
Pub No: 6500974
Author: LOWEY, WARREN GEORGE
Degree: PHD
School: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
Date: 1964
Pages: 103
Source: DAI- 25/10, p. 5638, Jul 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF RECENT TECHNIQUES FOR JUDGING
READABILITY
Author: LATIMER, EDWARD H.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1948
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TEXTBOOK READABILITY AND STUDENT
COMPREHENSION LEVELS IN TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN
ELEMENTARY EDUCATION
Pub No: 8027658
Author: BRUNSON, MACRA ANN HOLCOMB
Degree: EDD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1980
Pages: 144
Source: DAI-A 41/07, p. 2907, Jan 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: Purpose of the Study. The major purpose of this study was
to determine whether the reading comprehension level of
the students enrolled in reading courses for teacher
certification, as measured by the cloze procedure and
Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Form C are above, at, or below
the readability levels of the required textbooks, as
measured by the Fry Readability Formula. Of primary
concern was the relationship of these variables according
to age and classification.
Procedure. One hundred forty students enrolled in the
required reading courses for elementary teacher
certification at East Texas State University, Commerce,
Texas, and Stephen F. Austin State University,
Nacogdoches, Texas, during the Spring Semester of 1980
were included in the study. Only the students present on
the day of testing were included in the investigation.
The 1973 edition of the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Form
C: Comprehension Section, a cloze test developed from the
textbook, Teaching Them to Read, Reading How and Why, and
the Fry Readability Formula were the instruments used to
collect the data.
Findings. The major findings of this study were as
follows: (1) A greater percentage of subjects from both
universities participating in the investigation was found
to be reading below the readability levels of the
textbooks required in their reading courses. (2) When the
subjects' reading abilities were determined by the
Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Form C, a greater percentage
of the subjects was found to be reading at or above the
readability levels of their textbooks. (3) A majority of
the subjects from both universities, as identified by
age, was found to be reading below the readability levels
of their required textbooks, as analyzed by the cloze
procedure. (4) A greater percentage of the subjects from
both universities, as identified by age, was found to be
reading at or above the readability levels of their
required textbooks, as measured by the Nelson-Denny
Reading Test, Form C. (5) When analyzed according to
classification, a greater percentage of the subjects from
both universities was found to be reading at or above the
readability levels of their required textbooks.
Conclusions. The conclusions, which are based on the
findings, are as follows: (1) Since a majority of the
students tested at Stephen F. Austin State University,
read below the levels of their required textbooks, the
data suggested that the cloze is a more rigid measurement
of reading comprehension. (2) Since the younger and older
students achieved at a lower level than those in the mid-
thirties on the cloze, it would seem that age does affect
reading comprehension. (3) Since a majority of the
subjects from both universities, as identified by
classification, was found to be reading below the
readability levels of their textbooks, as measured by the
cloze, it was concluded that classification was not a
determiner of reading comprehension. (4) Since more
students achieved at higher levels on the Nelson-Denny
Reading Test, Form C, than did on the cloze procedure, it
appears that tests constructed using a multiple-choice
format pose less difficulty for the student. (5) When
analyzed according to age, a majority of the subjects
from both universities read at or above the readability
of their texts, as measured by the Nelson-Denny Reading
Test, Form C, it appears that tests constructed with a
multiple-choice format provide the necessary content
clues for reading comprehension.


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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE READABILITY AND
COMPREHENSIBILITY OF A SIMPLIFIED AND THE ORIGINAL
VERSION OF AN AMERICAN SHORT STORY WITH STUDENTS OF
ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (SIMPLIFIED VERSION)
Pub No: 9024095
Author: HARPER, CANDACE ANN
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1990
Pages: 198
Adviser: JENKS, FREDERICK L.
Source: DAI-A 51/04, p. 1144, Oct 1990
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279); EDUCATION,
READING (0535); EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION
(0727)
Abstract: This study examined the effects of simplification of a
short story on the readability and comprehensibility of
the text for EFL readers at varying L2 proficiencies, and
on these readers' response to the story. The research was
conducted with the assumption that simplification
procedures which reduce semantic, syntactic, and content
features of texts do not adequately reflect current
reading theory and may render texts more 'readable' but
not necessarily more comprehensible or engaging.
Familiarity with story discourse may provide readers
schematic resources to overcome linguistic complexity.
The subjects were 256 French and Yugoslav university
students. TOEFL scores, ranging from 320 to 630, served
as the covariate in the statistical analyses of the
comprehension measures.
Readability of the two text versions was addressed
through application of readability formulas and analyses
of propositional content, cohesion, and stylistic
features. Comprehension was measured by means of cloze
passages scored with exact and acceptable word criteria,
a multiple-choice test, and written recall protocols
eliciting variables of percentage of propositions
recalled and total words written. Response was measured
by readers' conclusions for the story, and their
justifications of their conclusions.
Descriptive statistics for the readability measures show
the original version has higher difficulty ratings,
greater propositional density and number of metadiscourse
features, and greater cohesion, particularly lexical
cohesion. Inferential statistics for the comprehension
measures uniformly demonstrate that the original version
was more difficult to understand. Summary statistics for
the response variables indicate, however, that readers of
the original version wrote longer story conclusions,
included more reader-based inferences in their
justifications, and showed more awareness of story genre
and stylistic characteristics.
Procedural and instrumental limitations are discussed,
with instructional implications for the use of cohesive,
coherent, simplified materials in L2 contexts where
reading for information (as in ESP), or independent
reading for pleasure (as with SSR), are the goals. The
importance of the role of the teacher in preparing
readers to interact with unsimplified texts is stressed.


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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF SELECTED
ACCOUNTING TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7521827
Author: SMITH, CLAIRE LINDSAY GARNIER
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
Date: 1975
Pages: 102
Source: DAI-A 36/04, p. 1990, Oct 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, BUSINESS (0688)

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Title: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF TEXTBOOKS USED
IN SOUTH CAROLINA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WITH THE READING LEVELS
OF STUDENTS (SCIENCE, MATCH, COMPATIBLE)
Pub No: 8528172
Author: GAMBLE, DILL, JR.
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
Date: 1985
Pages: 117
Source: DAI-A 46/10, p. 2872, Apr 1986
Subject: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION (0514)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a
substantial number of eighth grade science students whose
reading levels were different from the readability levels
of the textbooks they were using.
This was a descriptive study which utilized frequencies
and percentages as statistical procedures.
Twenty-seven schools or ten percent of all schools where
eighth grade science was taught in South Carolina public
schools during the 1984-1985 academic year were included
in the study. The schools were randomly selected from the
forty-six counties, divided into eight geographical
areas.
There were 3,779 students included in the study. Only
those students who took the Comprehensive Test of Basic
Skills Form 'U' as seventh graders in the spring of 1984
and were enrolled in eighth grade science classes in the
fall of 1984 were included in the study. Students who
were retained or transferred and students in special
classes or special schools were excluded from the study.
This study compared the reading levels of students with
the readability levels of the eighth grade science
textbooks they were using.
The reading levels of students were determined by the
CTBS/U test scores from the 1984 spring testing. The
reading levels of students were grouped into three
reading levels: below grade, on grade and above grade
levels. The readability levels of eighth grade science
textbooks were also grouped into three levels: below
grade, on grade and above grade levels.
The readability levels of adopted textbooks were
established by textbook publishing companies using the
Dale-Chall formula, The Fry formula, the Gunning and
McLaughlin formulas. These readability levels were
accepted by the South Carolina Textbooks Evaluating and
Rating Committee.
Data from the study indicated that sixty-seven percent of
the students included in the study from the twenty-seven
sampled schools were using textbooks with readability
levels substantially different from the reading levels of
the students. Thirty-three percent of the students in the
study were using textbooks that matched their reading
levels. This match occurred below grade level, on grade
level and above grade level.


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Title: A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE READABILITY OF DIGEST AND
ORIGINAL VERSIONS OF ARTICLES
Pub No: 5800938
Author: KINNUNEN, SYLVIA HIVALA
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Date: 1957
Pages: 162
Source: DAI- 18/04, p. 1303, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

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Title: A COMPARISON OF FRESHMEN READING ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS WITH
THE READABILITY OF ASSIGNED BOOKS IN CONTENT-AREA COURSES
IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Pub No: 8015414
Author: JOHNSON, RUBY TERRY
Degree: EDD
School: AUBURN UNIVERSITY
Date: 1980
Pages: 131
Source: DAI-A 41/01, p. 181, Jul 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The study was conducted to describe the differences
between the estimated readability of textbooks used in
the General Education Program at Wallace State Community
College in Hanceville, Alabama, and the reading ability
levels of the students enrolled in those courses. One
hundred seventy students' reading levels were measured by
the Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Form C. The students'
reading ability levels were compared to the readability
levels of ten textbooks as measured by the Fry
Readability Formula.
The major findings of the study were: (1) The reading
achievement grade equivalent levels of the students
tested ranged from grade 6 to grade 15. (2) Forty percent
of the students tested rated below and thirty-four
percent rated above the grade equivalent level 13. (3)
The mean grade equivalent score of the students tested
was 12.8; the mode, 13.0; and the median 13.4. (4) The
ten textbooks examined ranged in grade equivalent reading
difficulty from grade 7 to grade 17 as measured by the
Fry Readability Formula. (5) Thirty percent of the
students tested read at or above the arithmetic mean of
the books examined, and 70 percent read below that level.
Recommendations were made to test all students upon
admission for reading ability level, to select textbooks
with appropriate reading difficulty levels supplemented
with multiple reading materials of varying readability
levels, and to adjust curriculums to the reading levels
of the students.
A recommendation was made for instructors in the content
area to have the ability to help students develop the
reading skill components that will contribute to their
success in the content-area classroom. Content-area
instructors can acquire such ability through pre-service
and/or in-service preparation.


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Title: A comparison of literacy and readability in the Extended
Institutes of Religion program of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints
Pub No: 3010710
Author: Chapman, Thomas Godwin;
Degree: EdD
School: UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING
Date: 2001
Pages: 128
Adviser: Amstutz, Donna
ISBN: 0-493-20097-5
Source: DAI-A 62/03, p. 963, Sep 2001
Subject: EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS (0527); EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of
literacy of the young adult participants of the Extended
Institutes of Religion of the Church of Jesus Christ of
Latter-day Saints (or LDS Church) in the Utah Valley area
with readability scores of the standard works of the LDS
Church ( the King James Version of the Bible, the
Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants
, and
the Pearl of Great Price). The
population was comprised of 18–30 year-old
participants who attended extended institute classes
offered in Utah Valley. Nineteen classes were randomly
selected from the population to participate in the study
(using a cluster sampling method), which yielded a sample
of 363 participants. A survey instrument was administered
at one point in time. The instrument was composed of a
demographics section and two forms (a locator test and a
survey test) of a standardized, nationally norm-
referenced literacy test (Tests of Adult Basic Education)
to determine the literacy levels of the sample. Classic
readability tests (the Dale-Chall Readability Formula,
the Flesch Readability Formula, the Fry Readability
Graph, and the Flesch-Kincaid Readability Formula) were
also conducted on the standard works to determine the
readability levels of these scriptural texts. It was
established that the average readability scores of the
standard works fell between 6.95 and 7.54 grade level
(depending upon to which of the four readability tests
was referred). It was further determined that 6% of the
sample read below the eighth grade literacy level and
subsequently might experience difficulty reading the
average text of the standard works.


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Title: A COMPARISON OF READABILITY INDEXES OF UPPER ELEMENTARY
SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7718117
Author: SIMON, GEORGIANNA
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Date: 1977
Pages: 159
Source: DAI-A 38/03, p. 1215, Sep 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)

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Title: A COMPARISON OF SEVEN COMPUTERIZED READABILITY FORMULAS
AS APPLIED TO ELEMENTARY SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 8704281
Author: CHEN, WEN-SHYONG
Degree: EDD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE
Date: 1986
Pages: 182
Source: DAI-A 47/11, p. 4037, May 1987
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is (1) to design a computerized
readability scoring system on most widely used
microcomputers; (2) to compare the results of the
readability formulas over the same textbooks in order to
offer guidance for use of the formulas; (3) to
investigate the intrabook variation within elementary
social studies textbooks; and (4) to determine whether
significant differences in readability exist between
different sample sizes.
Eleven frequently recommended elementary social studies
textbooks were included in this study. An Nth name
sampling technique was employed to randomly select thirty
100-word passages from each textbook. Seven readability
formulas were applied to the passages. A computerized
readability scoring system (FORMULA) containing seven
readability formulas was written in Informix database
management system and compiled on an IBM personal
computer.
The results showed (1) there was no universal agreement
among the formulas as to the rank orderings of textbook
difficulty; (2) there were wide discrepancies among
formulas that resulted in the same textbook being rated
several grade levels apart; (3) the Dale-Chall, the
Flesch, and the Fry Graph ranked textbooks consistently;
(4) there was no difference in the readability level
among the eleven textbooks as measured by the Dale-Chall
and the Fry Graph; (5) the Powers-Sumner-Kearl and the
Spache scores consistently agreed with the publishers'
grade designation; (6) the FOG and the SMOG scores seemed
to consistently agree and both formulas rated higher
readability levels than the other five measures; (7) the
sample size had a strong variable effect on readability
estimates.
Conclusions drawn from the findings are: (1) a
computerized readability scoring system can be
accomplished with a high reliability; (2) an automated
readability system offers a time-efficient means of
generating readability scores; (3) notable readability
differences will occur in grade designation by formulas
differing in comprehension criteria and in different
language variables; (4) intrabook variation is largely
affected by the sample size of the material analyzed; (5)
the Fry sampling procedure must be used with caution
until further research regarding its reliability has been
established.
Implications for practice and recommendations for further
study are discussed.


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Title: A COMPARISON OF SEVERAL METHODS OF ESTIMATING READABILITY
OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL READING MATERIAL
Pub No: 6003520
Author: INSKEEP, JAMES EDWARD, JR
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Date: 1960
Pages: 155
Source: DAI- 21/04, p. 822, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

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Title: A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS' READING ABILITIES, THE
READABILITY OF TEXTBOOKS, AND STUDENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD
TEXTBOOKS IN SEVEN AREAS OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN A
WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA AREA VOCATIONAL-TECHNICAL SCHOOL
Pub No: 7313228
Author: FIELDS, OWEN FRANKLIN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1972
Pages: 158
Source: DAI-A 33/12, p. 6801, Jun 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL (0747)

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Title: A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECT OF READABILITY ON LEARNING THE
CONTENT OF A STATE DRIVER'S HANDBOOK.
Pub No: 7628617
Author: HARVEY, RHONDA LYNN
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 95
Source: DAI-A 37/06, p. 3562, Dec 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)

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Title: A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF AN ADVANCE ORGANIZER AND
SIMPLIFIED READABILITY OF SCIENCE MATERIAL ON SCIENCE
ACHIEVEMENT IN THE BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Pub No: 8627479
Author: LEWIS, ELLIOTT HARRIS
Degree: EDD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1986
Pages: 229
Source: DAI-A 47/09, p. 3388, Mar 1987
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533); EDUCATION, SCIENCES (0714)
Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of the study was to compare the
effectiveness of an Ausubelian Advance Organizer and
simplified readability of science content when used
together or separately in the biology laboratory.
Criterion measure was a content examination.
Methodology. The population for this study included 239
ninth grade students in eight academic biology classes,
which were randomly assigned to treatments.
The equivalence of all classes was determined by the
application of a pretest and reading scores from the
California Achievement Test. No significant differences
were found among classes on either the pretest or reading
scores from the California Achievement Test.
To test the effects of an advance organizer, introductory
material was developed in accordance with Ausubel's
Advance Organizer Theory.
To test the effects of readability levels on student
understanding and comprehension, two types of written
laboratory procedures were developed for investigations
covering ten weeks. One type was written at a reading
level close to the students own grade level, while the
other type was rewritten at a lower grade level without
changing content. Readability levels were determined with
the aid of two standardized readability formulas.
The advance organizer groups received a written organizer
at the beginning of class prior to receiving written
laboratory procedures. Students then received either of
the two types of written laboratory procedures.
The control group received no organizer or simplified
written laboratory procedures.
Upon completion of all study material, a posttest was
administered to test groups from material taught during
the study.
In addition to the posttest, a post-study questionnaire
was distributed to all students, to determine students'
own expectations for their performance when there was a
change in reading levels of material to be comprehended.
Results. Overall, the results indicate that either the
advance organizer or simplified reading material is
significantly better than no treatment, but the two
together are significantly better than either alone.
Conclusions. The results of the study supported Ausubel's
Advance Organizer Theory and use of the simplified
readability method, as a facilitator to learning. When
both treatments were given together, a greater
facilitation of learning occurred, as compared to either
alone.
The results of the post-study questionnaire did not
clearly indicate any significant differences among
treatment groups.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF READABILITY AND TIME ON
LEARNING THE CONTENT OF A STATE DRIVER'S HANDBOOK.
Pub No: 7708580
Author: EWING, MURL JEAN
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 104
Source: DAI-A 37/10, p. 6154, Apr 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE FIVE MOST BASAL PRIMARY READING
ADOPTIONS WITH THE EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT OF EACH ADOPTION
PERIOD IN THE AREAS OF CONTENT, VOCABULARY, WORD
ANALYSIS, READINESS, AND READABILITY
Author: MCANARNEY, HARRY EDWARD
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Date: 1958
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE READABILITY LEVELS OF BROADCASTS BY
CERTAIN NATIONAL AND LOCAL NEWSCASTERS
Author: ABER, LEE A.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1953
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE READABILITY LEVELS OF SECONDARY
SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTS IN ALABAMA OVER TWO ADOPTION PERIODS
Pub No: 8114917
Author: BARFIELD, DAVID SCOVILLE
Degree: EDD
School: AUBURN UNIVERSITY
Date: 1981
Pages: 98
Source: DAI-A 42/01, p. 166, Jul 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, SOCIAL SCIENCES (0534)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a
significant difference in the readability levels of
social studies textbooks, grades seven through twelve,
adopted by the state of Alabama over two adoption
periods, beginning in 1963 and 1975. Subproblems
generated were: (1) to determine if there is a
significant difference in the readability levels between
grade levels in social studies textbooks, grades seven
through twelve, adopted by the state of Alabama over two
adoption periods, beginning in 1963 and 1975, and (2) to
determine if there is a significant interaction between
the main effects of adoption period and grade level.
A total of seventy-four randomly selected textbooks,
thirty-four from the 1963 list and forty from the 1975
list, were used in the study. The readability levels were
determined by the application of the Fry Readability
Graph and the Flesch Reading Ease Formula. A 2 x 6
Factorial Analysis of Variance was used to analyze the
data and test the hypothesis. The .05 level of
significance was established as the acceptable level of
probability for the statistical analysis of the data.
The results of this study indicated that there were no
significant differences for the main effect of year of
adoption or for the interaction of the main effects of
adoption year and grade level. However, there was a
significant difference for the effect of grade level.
The conclusions drawn from this study were: (1)
Apparently the readability level of most social studies
books have not been reduced over the two adoption
periods. (2) The range within textbooks is too great. It
is not uncommon to find a within-text range difference of
three to four years. (3) The absence of a progressive
rise in readability levels through grade levels presents
increasing difficulties for marginal and below grade
level readers. (4) The range of readability levels of
texts intended for the same grade level is far too wide
to insure uniformity of selection. (5) The acceleration
of knowledge over the past twelve years has produced
concepts and ideas whose language is more difficult.
Therefore the problem of concept overload has increased.
(6) Efforts at the twelfth grade level to offer more life
skills courses may have contributed to the reduced
readability levels of those texts over the past twelve
years.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE READABILITY OF COMMUNITY COLLEGE
SOCIAL SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS WITH STUDENT READING LEVELS AND
THE EFFECT ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.
Pub No: 7731774
Author: BERTALAN, JOHN J.
Degree: EDD
School: FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 147
Source: DAI-A 38/08, p. 4596, Feb 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE READABILITY OF MARINE CORP TRAINING
MATERIALS AND THE READING GRADE LEVEL OF MARINES AT CAMP
PENDLETON.
Pub No: 1316042
Author: HINDS, SANDRA JUDITH
Degree: MS
School: CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON
Date: 1981
Pages: 81
Source: MAI 19/03, p. 224, Fall 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE READABILITY OF SELECTED HIGH SCHOOL
SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 8802570
Author: SELLARS, GERALD BURNON
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1987
Pages: 158
Source: DAI-A 48/12, p. 3085, Jun 1988
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The major purpose of this study was to determine if the
textbooks used in tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade
social studies, science, and literature classes are
appropriate for the students who are using them. A
secondary purpose was to compare the difficulty of the
texts at each grade level and in each content area. An
exact word scored cloze test was administered to
determine difficulty. Minor exceptions were made in
scoring.
An F-test with an alpha level of.01 was used to determine
if a significant difference existed in each content area.
The same method was used to determine significance of
difference at each grade level. If a significant
difference was found, the Tukey-Kramer Modification of
The Tukey Honest Significance Difference Test was used to
find the source or sources of difference.
The results indicated that 92 per cent of the subjects (N
= 772) tested at the frustration reading level. This
result means that only eight per cent of the subjects are
able to profit from attempting to read these textbooks.
The results also indicated that the social studies
textbooks were less difficult than science or literature
books for both tenth and twelfth graders. For eleventh
graders, social studies and science textbooks were more
difficult than literature books.
Eleventh grade social studies was more difficult than
both tenth and twelfth grade social studies, but eleventh
grade literature was less difficult than tenth or twelfth
grade literature.
Because of the high percentage of subjects who scored in
the frustration reading level range, the following
recommendations were made: (1) The school system should
implement programs to improve the reading level of its
students. (2) Teachers should teach reading in the
content area. (3) Teachers should develop alternatives to
textbook assignments for this population.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE READABILITY OF SIX VERSIONS OF THE
BIBLE AS MEASURED BY THE CLOZE PROCEDURE.
Pub No: 7810543
Author: LAWIN, PRISCILLA ANN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO
Date: 1978
Pages: 223
Source: DAI-A 39/01, p. 170, Jul 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE READING ABILITY LEVELS OF STUDENTS
ENROLLED IN SELECTED FIRST-YEAR JUNIOR COLLEGE VOCATIONAL
COURSES TO THE READABILITY LEVEL OF ASSIGNED TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 8703438
Author: ALLEN, H. M. (MIKE)
Degree: EDD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1986
Pages: 116
Source: DAI-A 47/10, p. 3718, Apr 1987
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Purpose of the Study. The purpose of this study was to
determine the average readability level of textbooks used
in beginning courses of basic drafting and automotive
service technology at Tarrant Country Junior College,
Fort Worth, Texas, and to compare this readability level
to the mean reading level of those students enrolled.
Procedure. All students enrolled in Basic Drafting,
Related Automotive Electricity, and Basic Automotive
Maintenance who had completed the Nelson-Denny Reading
Test, Form C, were included in this study conducted
during the fall 1985 regular semester at the Northwest
and South campuses of Tarrant County Junior College. The
Schulyer (1982) Readability Program was used to determine
the average readability level of the five textbooks
assigned in the classes involved in the study.
Findings. The data presented in this comparative study
revealed the following: (1) Students enrolled in basic
drafting and beginning automotive technology courses are
generally reading near the readability level of their
assigned textbooks. (2) Significant grade-level
differences existed between the individual reading scores
of students tested and the expected reading level of
college freshmen. (3) Seventy to 80 percent of the
students read below college level, and 29 percent of one
class read at the sixth-grade level. (4) Generally,
textbooks were written and students were reading at or
near the tenth-grade level. (5) More than one grade level
difference exists between formulas designed to measure
the readability of technical or adult materials and those
formulas that are more popular or are designed for
machine scoring.
Conclusions. The following conclusions were drawn: (1)
Awareness of abilities and possible reading difficulties
should be a primary consideration when selecting
textbooks. (2) Information is available for making
determinations about reading abilities or levels, but
even computer programs do not always simplify the process
or avoid tedious effort needed to determine readability
levels. (3) Reading levels of students and readability
levels of textbooks for adult vocational, technical, or
occupational areas encounter rather unique problems that
cannot be solved through simple grade placement. (4)
Computer-generated information concerning readability
formulas must be selected and utilized with care and
discrimination.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF THE TROPE DENSITY AND READABILITY OF
NEWBERY BRONZE MEDAL AWARD BOOKS AND SELECTED TEACHER'S
CHOICES, 1983--1985
Pub No: 8721832
Author: BEALING, SARA CANNON
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1987
Pages: 235
Source: DAI-A 48/07, p. 1717, Jan 1988
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The trope density of the Newbery Bronze Medal winners and
the selected Advanced Teacher's Choices books (1983-1985)
was studied to determine the most common type of trope
found in each of the eight prize-winning children's
literature books. The readability level of each Newbery
Bronze Medal winner and each selected Advanced Teacher's
Choice was studied. The investigator utilized eight
advanced children's literature books in seeking answers
to the following questions.
Is there is significant difference between the trope
density of the Newbery Bronze Medal Award books and the
Advanced Teacher's Choices Books? Is there a significant
difference in the readability levels of the two
categories of books? Is there a significant relationship
between readability levels and trope densities? Is there
a significant difference in the trope types found in the
Newbery Bronze Medal Award Books and the Teacher's
Choices Books? These are the questions this investigator
sought to answer in this study.
The four hypotheses were tested by using the following:
(1) The Mann-Whitney U Test for small samples was
employed for hypotheses 1 and 2; (2) The Spearman Rank
Order Correlation was employed for hypothesis 3; (3) Chi-
square and Binomial statistics were employed to test
hypothesis 4.
No significant differences were found in the mean trope
densities of the three Newbery Bronze and the five
selected Advanced Teacher's Choices books. No significant
differences were found in the readability levels of the
three Newbery Bronze Medal Award Books and the five
selected Advanced Teacher's Choices. However, a
significant relationship between Award type and trope
frequency was found. It was also found that the most
frequently used trope was sense and the least used tropes
were synecdoche, litote, and metonomy.
Further studies of metaphorical language should be
conducted utilizing advanced fictional and nonfictional
children literature books, pop literature, and
newspapers. The readability levels of prize winning
literature books, pop literature, and newspapers should
be examined.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OF ASSESSING TEXTBOOK
READABILITY OF SELECTED COLLEGE LEVEL ELECTRONICS
TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7103329
Author: FROELICH, DONALD MAX
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
Date: 1970
Pages: 165
Source: DAI-A 31/08, p. 3917, Feb 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, INDUSTRIAL (0521)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
SELECTED 'PRE-LINGUISTIC,' LINGUISTIC AND
PSYCHOLINGUISTIC MEASURES OF READABILITY.
Pub No: 7723992
Author: LINDBERG, MARGARET ANN
Degree: PHD
School: WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 319
Source: DAI-A 38/05, p. 2524, Nov 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF THE READABILITY GRADE LEVEL OF THE
MOST FREQUENTLY STATE ADOPTED INTERMEDIATE LEVEL SOCIAL
STUDIES TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7314491
Author: FORD, JERRY LAVELLE
Degree: EDD
School: MCNEESE STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1972
Pages: 195
Source: DAI-A 33/12, p. 6589, Jun 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A DETERMINATION OF WHETHER THE DALE-CHALL READABILITY
FORMULA MAY BE REVISED TO EVALUATE MORE VALIDLY THE
READABILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE MATERIALS
Pub No: 6811892
Author: HOLMQUIST, JOHN BRUCE
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO
Date: 1968
Pages: 142
Source: DAI-A 29/02, p. 407, Aug 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AGREEMENT OF JUDGMENTS OF ELEMENTARY TEACHERS AND
MEASURED READABILITY LEVEL OF SELECTED FREE AND
INEXPENSIVE SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIALS
Pub No: 6701217
Author: DUVALL, CHARLES ROBERT
Degree: PHD
School: OHIO UNIVERSITY
Date: 1966
Pages: 226
Source: DAI-A 27/08, p. 2275, Feb 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN STYLISTIC ELEMENTS OF
SELECTED WORKS OF LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN AND THEIR
RELATIONSHIP TO READABILITY
Pub No: 7003433
Author: MOIR, LEO HUGHES
Degree: EDD
School: WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1969
Pages: 175
Source: DAI-A 30/09, p. 3859, Mar 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A MEASUREMENT OF READABILITY OF THE TEXTS USED ON THE
FRESHMAN AND SOPHOMORE LEVEL AT THE UNIVERSITY OF
WYOMING, 1952-1953
Author: SOLBERG, KRISTEN B.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING
Date: 1954
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ALGORITHM FOR COMPUTERIZED READABILITY.
Pub No: 7410711
Author: BAKER, HOMER O'NEAL
Degree: EDD
School: ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1974
Pages: 71
Source: DAI-A 34/11, p. 6857, May 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: ANALYSIS OF STUDENT READING ABILITIES IN FIVE VOCATIONAL
TRADE AREAS WITH TEXTBOOK READABILITY AND CLASSROOM
PERFORMANCE
Pub No: 8100844
Author: LUPTON, VICKI BULLOCK
Degree: DED
School: NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1980
Pages: 54
Source: DAI-A 41/07, p. 3073, Jan 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL (0747)
Abstract: The present investigation was designed to determine
whether vocational textbooks were appropriate for the
reading abilities of the students using them. This
information in turn provided a basis for comparing
student reading abilities with classroom performance.
Student reading ability was analyzed in the five
vocational trade areas of auto mechanics, carpentry,
electronics, graphics, and masonry.
A one-way analysis of variance was used to test the
significance of the differences among the mean corrected
grade levels of the five textbooks chosen to be analyzed
for reading difficulty. A significant difference was
found among textbooks for readability according to the
Fry Readability Graph, with the highest mean readability
level of 10.7 for electronics, and the lowest of 7.7 for
auto mechanics. Therefore, it cannot be assumed on the
basis of the present sample that textbooks in different
areas of vocational education are written on the same
level of reading difficulty.
Four separate analyses of variance were used to test the
significance of differences among the adjusted mean
scores for grade equivalents, stanines, percentile ranks,
and raw scores on the California Achievement Test.
Significant differences were found in performance on
total reading for students in the vocational areas
investigated in the present study. The data suggest that
students in electronics were reading significantly better
according to the California Achievement Test with a mean
grade equivalent of 10.9 when compared with student
reading achievement of 8.3 in masonry, 8.6 in graphics,
9.0 in carpentry, and 9.0 in auto mechanics. According to
performance on the California Achievement Test, the
students in the present sample enrolled in electronics
were performing at an average level when compared with
the national norm group. However, in contrast, sampled
students in the areas of auto mechanics, carpentry,
graphics, and masonry were reading at an average of two
or more grade levels below grade placement.
Raw scores from the Cloze procedure were used in five
separate analyses of variance to determine the ability of
students to read and comprehend instructional materials
in the five areas of vocational education. Results on the
Cloze procedure showed non-significant differences were
found among carpentry and graphics, carpentry and
electronics, and electronics and graphics. All other
comparisons showed that a statistically significant
relationship existed among the Cloze performance level of
students. On the average, students in the area of auto
mechanics were comprehending their textbooks on an
instructional reading level. Students in other areas were
comprehending on a frustration reading level. Even in the
area of electronics where students performed on an
average range on the California Achievement Test, the
text appeared, on the basis of Cloze performance, too
difficult.
The Pearson product-moment correlational technique was
used to test the relationship between student reading
performance and student classroom performance. An overall
significant difference existed between student reading
performance as measured by the Cloze procedure and the
California Achievement Test when compared with student
classroom performance as measured by teacher assignment
of semester grades. However, data showing the assignment
of letter grades from the present study indicated that in
teachers' judgments, students were performing within an
average or above average range in all five vocational
areas. Classroom performance, then, was judged as
satisfactory or better for most vocational education
students. This suggests that students' reading ability
was not necessarily a critical factor influencing student
evaluation in the classroom. One possible explanation is
that variation among teachers in the assignment of grades
can occur even with a uniform grading system, since both
subjective and objective teacher judgments were
indicated. In addition, the five vocational areas
included course content which emphasized the development
of manipulative skills, as well as the mastery of course
related concepts. Adequate classroom performance then
could have been dependent upon the mastery of technical
skills rather than textbook knowledge.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: ANALYSIS OF THE READABILITY OF FIFTH-GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES
TEXTBOOKS USING THE CLOZE PROCEDURE.
Pub No: 7514432
Author: FLEMING, JOSEPH BRUCE
Degree: EDD
School: UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1974
Pages: 105
Source: DAI-A 36/01, p. 104, Jul 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF READING AND WRITING LEVELS
OF THIRD, FIFTH, AND SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS AS MEASURED
BY READABILITY FORMULAE
Pub No: 8408160
Author: BARNES, JAMES ALBERT, JR.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF OREGON
Date: 1983
Pages: 290
Source: DAI-A 45/01, p. 78, Jul 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to measure children's
written language by using readability formulae and by
comparing levels of writing achievement with levels of
reading achievement in grades three, five, and seven.
Five readability formulae (Dale-Chall, Fry Graph, Harris-
Jacobson, Lorge, and Spache) were applied to the writing
samples of 292 third, fifth, and seventh grade students.
Reading tests included: The Comprehensive Test of Basic
Skills, to obtain a total reading achievement score, and
12 cloze reading passages to assess each student's
independent, instructional, and frustrational reading
levels. Three different writing samples, in three modes
(expository, argumentative, and descriptive), were
obtained from each student and combined into one overall
writing sample. Readability formulae were applied to the
cloze passages to determine the grade-level for each
passage. Experimenter-adapted readability formulae were
applied to students' writing samples.
The study found: (a) a strong relationship between
published readability measures, weak to moderate
relationships between experimenter-adapted writeability
measures, and insignificant to moderate relationships
between writeability measures and cloze tests; (b) the
relationship between cloze tests and norm-referenced
tests was moderate and between writeability measures and
reading achievement tests was weak to moderate; and (c)
reading performance exceeded writing performance at
third, fifth, and seventh grade levels, although third
grade students were found to write at a grade-level
comparable to their independent reading level.
The experimenter concluded that: (a) experimentally-
adapted readability formulae can be used to obtain
writeability levels; (b) a significant relationship
exists between writeability measures and reading
measures; (c) third, fifth, and seventh graders write
about 1, 3, and 4 grade levels, respectively, below their
reading levels; and (d) the average third grader appears
to write at his or her independent reading level.
One implication is a caution against substituting peer-
authored stories for trade books or basal readers,
although they may be helpful to below-grade-level readers
for developing writing skills and for reinforcing reading
skills.
Replication of this study is recommended: (a) using a
pretest-posttest design and (b) at grade levels different
from those used for this study.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF CERTAIN STYLISTIC FEATURES OF SELECTED
LITERARY WORKS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO READABILITY
Pub No: 8004073
Author: NITSAISOOK, MALEE
Degree: PHD
School: SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY AT CARBONDALE
Date: 1979
Pages: 232
Source: DAI-A 40/08, p. 4453, Feb 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF PRE-PRACTICE AND PRACTICE READING DEMANDS
ON ASSOCIATE DEGREE REGISTERED NURSES (NURSING STUDENTS,
TEXT READABILITY, ASSOCIATE DEGREE NURSES)
Pub No: 9235410
Author: HALASKA, MARILYN WALENTA
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
Date: 1992
Pages: 199
Adviser: PHILLIPS, J. ARCH JR.
Source: DAI-A 53/07, p. 2224, Jan 1993
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); HEALTH
SCIENCES, NURSING (0569); EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: This study responded to the lack of information about
reading demands on pre-practice and practice associate
degree nurses. Increasing numbers of nursing students
have low verbal skills, pre-practice attrition rates are
high and the range of pre-practice and practice reading
demands was unknown. Reading demand was defined as text-
based predictors of the range and concentration of
reading difficulty of written materials.
The sample consisted of 500 documents and document
segments used by associate degree nursing students (pre-
practice) and hospital staff nurses (practice). The
setting was a rural Southern community college and an
acute care community hospital. Pre-practice published and
teacher-made documents and practice materials used
directly and indirectly by nurses in practice were
analyzed. Content was limited to the health care
categories of respiratory and cardiovascular disease,
cancer and diabetes.
The method used was descriptive analysis of reading
demands of documents used by associate degree nurses.
Reading demand was measured by Flesch, Flesch-Kincaid and
Fog readability formulas using the computer program
Rightwriter to analyze word-processed whole text or text
excerpts. Published text excerpts were content-specific
purposeful selections.
The most significant result was the wide range of reading
demands in pre-practice and practice. As expected,
practice reading demand was less than pre-practice.
Published documents demonstrated higher, more consistent
reading demands than teacher-made. Practice direct
documents, specifically patient records, had low yet
consistent reading demands, reflecting the repetitive and
standardized nature of many documentation systems.
Within the health care categories, pre-practice cancer
had the highest mean and widest range of reading demands,
reflecting the concentration of pathophysiological and
pharmacological terms and teacher attempts to improve
student comprehension. Teacher-made documents ranged
widely, reflecting document purpose. Explanatory
documents had low reading demands. Summary references had
high demands. The practice diabetes category had the
lowest reading demand, reflecting that disease's narrow
and specific nature and high level of patient self-care.
Conclusions of the study included suggestions for
decreasing reading demands of practice and pre-practice
and use of reading demand in development of pre-practice
admission criteria, curriculum design and alternative
learning strategies.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF READABILITY OF THIRD AND FOURTH GRADE
MODERN MATHEMATICS TEXTBOOKS USING THE CLOZE PROCEDURE
Pub No: 6704509
Author: COVINGTON, RICHARD JOHN LEE
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES
Date: 1966
Pages: 108
Source: DAI-A 27/10, p. 3219, Apr 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF READING LEVELS OF STUDENTS AND READABILITY
LEVELS OF TEXTBOOKS AT SELECTED JUNIOR COLLEGES IN THE
STATE OF ALABAMA
Pub No: 8825781
Author: REED, KEFLYN XAVIER
Degree: EDD
School: AUBURN UNIVERSITY
Date: 1988
Pages: 79
Adviser: BROGDON, RICHARD E.
Source: DAI-A 49/09, p. 2602, Mar 1989
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Three hundred seventy-seven students were randomly
selected from five junior colleges in the state of
Alabama and administered the Nelson-Denny Reading Test to
determine their reading levels. The Fry Readability
Formula and Graph were used to determine the difficulty
levels of 30 textbooks used in eight content area courses
at Bishop State Junior College, Brewer State Junior
College, Enterprise State Junior College, Jefferson State
Junior College, and Northeast Alabama State Junior
College.
The average reading level of students in the sample was
12.12; the reading levels ranged from 3.0-16.9; and 54.6%
of the students in the sample read below the college
grade level (13.0). The average readability level of the
textbooks was 13.93; the readability levels ranged from
9-17; and 70% of the textbooks were at the college level.
Additionally, 67% of the students in the sample had
reading levels below the average readability level for
the textbooks.
Recommendations were made to use readability formulas as
a criterion in the textbook selection process, to
determine students' reading levels upon entry to the
state's junior colleges, and to emphasize the use of
textbook reading strategies when teaching content area
material.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF SOME STRUCTURAL VARIABLES OF THE KOREAN
LANGUAGE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A READABILITY FORMULA FOR
KOREAN TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7418082
Author: PARK, YOUNGSUN
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1974
Pages: 110
Source: DAI-A 35/02, p. 946, Aug 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

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Title: AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPROPRIATENESS OF THE READABILITY AND
DIFFICULTY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN A JUNIOR HIGH
SCHOOL
Pub No: 6201869
Author: RAMSEY, ROBERT DIEHL
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Date: 1961
Pages: 222
Source: DAI- 22/11, p. 3896, Jun 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

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Title: AN ANALYSIS OF THE READABILITY, FORMAT, DIRECTIONS AND
OBJECTIVES OF SELECTED BASAL READER WORKBOOKS
Pub No: 8921641
Author: SHULTZ, EILEEN LOUISE
Degree: EDD
School: LEHIGH UNIVERSITY
Date: 1989
Pages: 166
Source: DAI-A 50/06, p. 1615, Dec 1989
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the
readability, format, directions, and objectives of 336
workbook pages randomly selected from preprimer through
eighth levels of the Houghton Mifflin (1986), Macmillan
(1987), and Scott Foresman (1983) basal reading systems.
Additionally, the degree of utility of the workbooks was
studied, as was the impact of readability on overall
workbook effectiveness. The researcher developed nine
criteria of effectiveness by which these determinations
were made. Three expert evaluators then assessed each
workbook page according to these indices. Content
analysis technique was used to collect data. Chi-square
analysis was conducted to determine the statistical
significance of interrater reliability ($p$ $<$.01).
Spearman Rank Correlation was used to assess the
relationship of high readability on workbook
effectiveness.
Results revealed that the basal workbooks exhibited the
following areas of weakness with varying degrees of
frequency: (a) high readability level, (b) unclear
written directions, (c) multiple operations per set of
directions, (d) confusing illustrations, (e) no sample
exercises provided, and (f) lesson objective not
reinforced by workbook activity. In addition, overall
workbook utility was found to range from low to high
based on the nine effectiveness criteria. These results
varied from series to series. Finally, high readability
levels correlated significantly with problematic areas
across the evaluative criteria in only 8 of 42 workbooks.
The researcher concluded that: (a) given the high
readability levels of many workbook pages, teachers
should use caution in assigning them for independent
usage, (b) teachers cannot assume that students can
process written directions without additional
clarification, (c) multi-step directions can complicate
workbook tasks for students, (d) if illustrations are
used on a workbook page, they should clarify the purpose
of the activity, (e) sample exercises should appear after
directions whenever appropriate, (f) if a lesson
objective is not accompanied by a reinforcing activity,
it is of negligible value, (g) teachers must be aware
that workbook utility varies and adjustment
responsibility is on them, and (h) high readability in
itself is not necessarily a workbook contaminant, but it
can increase task complexity and should be managed
accordingly.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF THE READABILITY OF SIXTH GRADE SCIENCE
TEXTBOOKS USING THE DALE-CHALL FORMULA AND THE CLOZE
PROCEDURE TEST
Pub No: 8005095
Author: BENNETT, LYLE GENE
Degree: EDD
School: UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1979
Pages: 97
Source: DAI-A 40/10, p. 5299, Apr 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READABILITY
OF TEXTBOOKS AND THE ABILITIES OF STUDENTS IN A JUNIOR
HIGH SCHOOL
Pub No: 0015101
Author: PITTLER, FANNIE ALPERN
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1955
Pages: 114
Source: DAI- 16/01, p. 48, Aug 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN APPLICATION OF READABILITY TECHNIQUES TO PREDICTION OF
DIFFICULTY LEVEL OF SHORTHAND DICTATION MATERIALS
Pub No: 7125366
Author: HENSHALL, JOY LANIER
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF NORTH TEXAS
Date: 1971
Pages: 155
Source: DAI-A 32/04, p. 1980, Oct 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN APPRAISAL OF THE READABILITY OF CERTAIN BOOKS USED IN
THE INTERMEDIATE GRADES OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN ERIE,
PENNSYLVANIA
Author: HUEBNER, MILDRED H.
Degree: PHD
School: CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1955
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN APPRAISAL OF THE TREND OF READABILITY OF BASIC READER
SERIES FOR THE INTERMEDIATE GRADES
Pub No: 0013901
Author: WALCHAK, FRANK ADAM
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1955
Pages: 123
Source: DAI- 15/10, p. 1762, Aug 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURAL VARIABLES IN MALAY: A
READABILITY FORMULA
Pub No: 8220293
Author: MD. YUNUS, KHADIJAH ROHANI
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
Date: 1982
Pages: 129
Source: DAI-A 43/04, p. 1098, Oct 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Purpose. The purposes of the study were: (1) to isolate
a set of variables which could be used to predict text
difficulty in Malay and (2) to construct a practical,
empirically based readability formula for Malaysian
prose.
Procedure. This was a text analysis study in which grade
level designations of textbook passages served as the
dependent variable. Two textbooks each were chosen from
language, social science and physical science textbooks
used in Malaysian schools from grade two to grade eleven.
Six 100-word sample passages were randomly selected from
each book. Ten structural variables were selected as
independent variables. Tabulations for the ten
independent variables were made based on each of 36
passages at each grade level. Thus, there were 360
observations at each grade level and 3,600 in the entire
study. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were
performed in order to identify the regression equations
which best predicted the grade levels of the textbooks.
In order to identify patterns of relationship among
variables, the ten independent variables were factor
analyzed. All analyses were completed using SPSS.
Findings. In the factor analysis, two major factors were
extracted, a 'vocabulary' factor and a 'sentence' factor.
The results of the multiple regression analyses indicated
that two simple variables, syllables per 300 words and
average sentence length could be used to predict grade
level designations in all the three subject areas.
Coefficients of determination ranged from .84 to .93.
Three separate readability formulae were derived, one for
each subject area.
Conclusions. (1) Structural variables are excellent
predictors of text difficulty in Malay. (2) Using 300-
word samples yields better estimates of readability than
100-word samples.
Recommendation. In addition to implementing the use of
readability formulae in Malaysia, recources should be
dedicated to 'explaining' the specific variables
associated with readability predictions. High
correlations alone do not provide such explanations.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE GRADEDNESS OF THE MASTERY LEARNING
READING MATERIALS AT THE MIDDLE AND UPPER GRADES
(READABILITY)
Pub No: 8527833
Author: BANKS, AUDREY C.
Degree: EDD
School: PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS OF VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY
Date: 1985
Pages: 133
Source: DAI-A 46/10, p. 2916, Apr 1986
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)
Abstract: A large urban school system chose to develop its own
reading materials and required the materials to be used
systemwide. A determination was made as to whether the
present materials have applicability to some nationally
recognized readability formula. This study also validated
the notion held by both principals and teachers that the
vocabulary load in the developmental reading materials is
uncontrolled. The overall purpose of this study was to
determine to what extent the district's materials are at
the appropriate levels. I used the Dale-Chall (1948)
instrument. The instrument was designed to measure
average sentence length and percentage of unfamiliar
words. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the
data.
The results of this research indicate that, out of 15
reading books, only 1 was below grade level, 2 were at
grade level and 12 were above grade level. Only 1 of the
5 comprehension books for grades 4 through 8 were below
the specified grade level. Three of the comprehension
books were above grade level and 1 was at grade level.
All 5 study skills books were above grade level. Four of
the test books were above the specified grade level and 1
was at grade level.
The analysis of the data regarding the reading materials
suggests the following considerations regarding the
readability of the Mastery Reading Program in the school
system studied: (1) Teachers should be more aware of
vocabulary load and sentence length determinates as they
teach reading to their students using particular
textbooks. (2) Publishers should include data that
explain the vocabulary load and sentence length
(readability) of the textbooks they promote. (3) A study
should be conducted to examine the relationship between
readability and achievement of students. (4) This study
should be replicated using another readability formula
other than the Dale-Chall Readability Formula. (5) This
study should be replicated in circumstances that would
explore the intrusion of a variety of variables that were
not examined in this study that might have some impact on
student learning.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF READABILITY AND OTHER
TEXTUAL FACTORS ON THE FAILURE RATE AND THE COURSE NON-
COMPLETION RATE OF AIRMEN IN CAREER DEVELOPMENT COURSES
IN THE UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
Pub No: 8225477
Author: SAVELL, DOUGLAS LAUREN
Degree: EDD
School: AUBURN UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 131
Source: DAI-A 43/06, p. 1797, Dec 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING (0516)
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to assess the influence
of 11 textual factors on the failure rate and the non-
completion rate of Career Development Courses and to
derive an efficient regression prediction model for each
rate. Fifty-four five-level CDCs were randomly selected
for study. Each course was analyzed for: text
readability; course exam readability; number of pages and
volumes in the course; average volume, chapter, objective
segment, sentence, and course exam length; and frequency
of illustrations and text exercises. The incluence of
each factor was assessed using the standard multiple
regression model. The stepwise regression model was used
to derive the prediction equations.
Five conclusions were drawn from the standard regression
analysis: (1) Based on the three 150-word samples from
each volume subject to FORCAST analysis, readability
appears no longer to be a major determinant of the two
rates. (2) The major determinant now is the length of a
CDC. (3) The best measure of the influence of course
length on the two rates is the number of pages. (4)
Volume and chapter length are contributing to the
increasing length of CDCs. (5) As courses grow in length,
authors tend to use a less proportionate number of
illustrations.
The effort to develop an efficient prediction equation
for each rate was only partially successful. Only the
non-completion rate equation accounted for enough
variance to warrant its use.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE READABILITY LEVEL OF STATE ADOPTED
HIGH SCHOOL AGRICULTURE TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 1353364
Author: HITCHNER, MARY G.
Degree: MS
School: MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1992
Pages: 89
Adviser: DEEDS, JACQUELYN P.
Source: MAI 32/01, p. 16, Feb 1994
Subject: EDUCATION, AGRICULTURAL (0517); EDUCATION, GENERAL
(0515); AGRICULTURE, GENERAL (0473); EDUCATION, TESTS AND
MEASUREMENTS (0288)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine if high school
agriculture textbooks were written at too high a level
for secondary agricultural education students.
Analysis showed the mean of 72 agricultural textbooks to
be 12.16 grade levels, with a range from 8.33 to 15.53.
Nearly half of the textbooks were above the high school
reading level.
The four major publishers of agricultural textbooks had
readability means from 11.03 to 12.63 grade levels. This
is a range from the high school junior to the high school
senior level.
When analyzed by subject, the nine subjects had
readability means ranging from 10.47 to 13.97 grade
levels, or from the high school sophomore to the college
freshman level.
The subjects, divided by publisher, demonstrated above
high school grade level means for some publishers.
Analysis of the 14 individual state lists showed the
shortest approved lists had the lowest mean readability
levels.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN ASSESSMENT OF THE READABILITY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL
WORLD INVENTORY USING THREE MODIFIED READABILITY FORMULAS
Pub No: 8114908
Author: SMITH, THOMAS MICHAEL
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA
Date: 1981
Pages: 124
Source: DAI-A 42/02, p. 621, Aug 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)
Abstract: The present study investigated the effects on the
response patterns of a hospitalized patient sample when
the readability of certain test items taken from the
Experiential World Inventory (EWI) were modified to lower
readability levels. Two forms of selected test items
found to be at the sixth grade reading level or higher
were made. One form contained the items as they had
appeared originally in the EWI. The other form contained
the same items but reworded, rephrased, and in reverse
order, so that they scored below the sixth grade reading
level on three different readability formulas and were
judged to have retained 90% or more of their original
meaning by one of the co-authors of the EWI.
A counterbalanced design was used with 112 psychiatric
patients, all 21 years old or older, and all having
signed a patient permission form for such research.
Demographic data, IQs, and test results were the data
base.
Five hypotheses were tested. The first hypothesis
investigated the reliability of the two forms of the
test. The two forms were found to sample different
domains of content, and the original form was more
reliable than the rewritten form. The second hypotheses
investigated the relationship between the mean number of
pathological responses on the two test forms. No
significant difference was found and the second null
hypothesis could not be rejected. The third hypothesis
investigated the difference between the correlation of
the total number of pathological responses to the 62
original items and each original item and the correlation
of the total number of pathological responses to the 62
rewritten items and each original item. Although 13 items
were found to be significantly changed in validity, only
two were more valid in their rewritten forms. The fourth
hypothesis tested the relationship between the
pathological responses to the original items and the
rewritten items for each of the item pairs. A chi square
test for independence of these item pairs indicated that
only seven of 62 items pairs were significantly changed.
The last hypothesis investigated the difference between
the correlation of intelligence and total pathological
responses to original items, and the correlation of
intelligence and total pathological responses to
rewritten items. They were found to differ significantly,
and the original form of the test had a higher negative
correlation with intelligence than did the rewritten
form. This indicates less reliance on intelligence for
the rewritten items than for the original items.
It was suggested by these findings that the modification
of the items to lower reading levels was successful and
appears to hold promise for similar efforts with
different tests. The test of the first hypothesis
indicated different domains of content for the two test
forms, but no substantive significance was found.
Hypothesis 2 suggested no significant difference between
test forms, and the third hypothesis indicated that the
validity for the original form was higher than the
validity of the rewritten form. Hypothesis 4 indicated
that for only seven of 62 items, the number of
pathological responses were changed significantly.
Finally, Hypothesis 5 indicated that intelligence was a
greater influence on pathological responses on the
original form than on the rewritten form.
Recommendations were for a replication study using a
large sample size with subjects who were not mental
patients but who had limited reading ability. Different
criteria than IQ should be used. Perhaps a standard
reading test or the cloze procedure would be better.
Latency periods between test administration could be
lengthened or an experimental between groups design
utilized.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN EVALUATION OF CERTAIN CHILDREN'S BOOKS ON HUMAN
RELATIONS IN TERMS OF LITERARY MERIT, READABILITY,
INTERESTS AND OTHER PSYCHOLOGICAL VALUES
Author: BEAL, ELIZABETH
Degree: PHD
School: CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1964
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

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Title: AN EVALUATION OF THE READABILITY AND ACCEPTABILITY OF
MATERNAL NUTRITION EDUCATION MATERIALS FOR EXPANDED FOOD
AND NUTRITION EDUCATION PROGRAM CLIENTS
Pub No: 9512133
Author: SCHMITZ, KAREN JANE
Degree: PHD
School: MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1994
Pages: 302
Adviser: BOND, JENNY
Source: DAI-B 55/12, p. 5291, Jun 1995
Subject: HEALTH SCIENCES, NUTRITION (0570); EDUCATION, CURRICULUM
AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION, HEALTH (0680)
Abstract: Written materials are often used in nutrition education
in an attempt to increase a client's knowledge. However,
often the readability of these materials and the reading
level of the population are not assessed and compared. In
this study, the subjects were English speaking female
Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)
clients between 18 and 40 years of age. Michigan EFNEP
materials (flipchart and handouts) for pregnancy, titled
'Eating Right...for Two' (1992) were assessed for reading
grade equivalency and other characteristics of
readability using a scorecard developed by the
investigator. In the preliminary phase of this research,
the reading level of a sample of the Michigan EFNEP
population was assessed using the Slosson Oral Reading
Test (SORT). The readability of the printed materials and
client reading level were compared to determine the need
for changes in readability of the materials.
A new flipchart was developed (Client-Adapted Language
flipchart) using EFNEP-eligible women's remarks and
written at the median reading grade level of the EFNEP
women who were involved in the reading level assessment.
Several surveys were used to assess client knowledge
change and acceptability of materials.
The results of the SORT indicated that the median reading
level of a sample of clients was 8.3 grade level
equivalency. Survey results indicated that a greater
percentage of clients agreed that 'Eating Right...for
Two' was easier to read and less insulting compared to
the Client-Adapted Language flipchart. However, clients
who used the Client-Adapted Language flipchart had a
significantly greater increase in nutrition knowledge
compared to the women who used 'Eating Right...for Two.'
The method of allowing the target audience to produce the
wording for their own reading materials might result in
more understandable material.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN EVALUATION OF THE READABILITY, COMPLETENESS, AND
ACCURACY OF SELECTED DRUG INFORMATION BOOKS FOR THE
CONSUMER.
Pub No: 1320022
Author: STRATTON, TIMOTHY PATRICK
Degree: MS
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
Date: 1982
Pages: 121
Source: MAI 21/03, p. 235, Fall 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, HEALTH (0680)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN EVALUATION OF THE READABILITY OF TEXT AND
REINFORCEMENT OF NEW VOCABULARY WORDS IN FOUR MATHEMATICS
SERIES (TEXTBOOK EVALUATION)
Pub No: 9133761
Author: O'CONNOR, ROBERT ARTHUR
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
Date: 1991
Pages: 111
Adviser: HUFF, PHYLLIS E.
Source: DAI-A 52/06, p. 2089, Dec 1991
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535); EDUCATION, MATHEMATICS (0280)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate seventh and
eighth grade textbooks from four mathematics series
through the use of readability scores and the
reinforcement of new vocabulary words. This was done to
determine if a method could be developed which would help
educators better evaluate mathematics series in order to
select appropriate textbooks which match up well with the
reading level of the students. The readability scores
were calculated by using the Dale-Chall Readability
Formula and the Kane Formula II for use with mathematics
materials. The new vocabulary words introduced in the
series were listed on an adapted form of the Worksheet
for Analysis of Instructional Materials Beyond
Readability Scales (Schindler, 1980). The reinforcements
of the new vocabulary words were checked on the adapted
Schindler worksheet.
From the Dale-Chall corrected grade levels (CGL) used in
this evaluation, five of the eight textbooks were seen as
being written at a readability level which was more
difficult than the proposed grade level. The Kane formula
did not determine that any of the texts were
significantly different in level of difficulty. The four
mathematics series did not adequately reinforce the new
vocabulary words listed in the introductory lessons.
These findings point out the need for publishers as well
as teachers to pay attention to the language of
mathematics due to the impact which textbooks have upon
the mathematics curriculum.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE READABILITY OF
STANDARDIZED TESTS USED IN COUNSELING
Author: FORBES, FRITZ W.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Date: 1953
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN EXAMINATION OF THE VALIDITY AND UTILITY OF A LONG WORD
MEASURE IN THE PREDICTION OF READABILITY.
Pub No: 7926110
Author: CRAMER, GENEVIEVE RUMMELL
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
Date: 1979
Pages: 161
Source: DAI-A 40/06, p. 3212, Dec 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE VALIDITY OF THE
FLESCH READABILITY FORMULA AS RELATED TO ADULT MATERIALS
Pub No: 0005082
Author: PITCHER, ROBERT WALTER
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Date: 1953
Pages: 140
Source: DAI- 13/03, p. 342, Sep 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF THE FLESCH AND DALE-CHALL
READABILITY FORMULAS ON HIGH SCHOOL HEALTH TEXTS.
Pub No: 6206192
Author: MCTAGGART, AUBREY CHARLES
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
Date: 1962
Pages: 248
Source: DAI- 23/07, p. 2376, Sep 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: An inquiry into the vocabulary content and readability
levels of texts used in fifteen Newfoundland vocational
training programs word frequency lists and reading
difficulty evaluations for programs to which adult
education students aspire
Pub No: ML50465
Author: Clark, Kathryn E;
Degree: MEd
School: MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND (CANADA)
Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-315-50465-X
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE READABILITY OF RECENTLY PUBLISHED
HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS AND RELATED MATERIALS FOR
THE FOURTH GRADE
Author: SMITH, RUTH I.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1951
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: An investigation of the readability of three eighth grade
mathematics textbooks used in British Columbia
Pub No: MK25527
Author: Henderson, James Thomas;
Degree: MA
School: UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA (CANADA)
Date: 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE READING LEVELS OF HIGH SCHOOL
STUDENTS WITH THE READABILITY LEVELS OF CERTAIN CONTENT
TEXTBOOKS WITH THEIR COSTS
Pub No: 7222990
Author: BRYANT, JOYCE ELAINE PEADEN
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1971
Pages: 54
Source: DAI-A 33/03, p. 887, Sep 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE READING LEVELS OF JUNIOR HIGH
SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THE READABILITY LEVELS OF SELECTED
MODERN LANGUAGE TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7200264
Author: COX, JUANITA MIXSON
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1971
Pages: 55
Source: DAI-A 32/06, p. 2905, Dec 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE READING LEVELS OF SECONDARY
SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THE READABILITY LEVELS OF SELECTED
TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7008563
Author: JANZ, MARGARET LOUISE
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1968
Pages: 81
Source: DAI-A 30/11, p. 4856, May 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF SELECTED
COMPONENTS OF READABILITY AND COMPREHENSION AT THE
SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL.
Pub No: 7604463
Author: SHAFFER, GARY LEE
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI
Date: 1975
Pages: 97
Source: DAI-A 36/08, p. 5186, Feb 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE USE OF CLOZE TESTS AS A MEASURE
OF READABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR THE PRIMARY GRADES
Pub No: 6502370
Author: GALLANT, RUTH MARGARET FRANCES
Degree: EDD
School: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1964
Pages: 152
Source: DAI- 25/11, p. 6431, Aug 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE
CLOZE PROCEDURE AS A MEASURE OF READABILITY AND
COMPREHENSION FOR PRELINGUALLY, PROFOUNDLY DEAF STUDENTS.
Pub No: 7908869
Author: LASASSO, CAROL JO
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK
Date: 1978
Pages: 228
Source: DAI-A 39/10, p. 6067, Apr 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, SPECIAL (0529)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE VALIDITY OF THE HOMAN-HEWITT
READABILITY FORMULA
Pub No: 8918212
Author: HEWITT, MARGARET ANN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA
Date: 1989
Pages: 182
Adviser: LOWE, ALVIN J.
Source: DAI-A 50/05, p. 1212, Nov 1989
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524); EDUCATION, READING (0535);
EDUCATION, TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS (0288)
Abstract: The study's purpose was to determine if the Homan-Hewitt
Readability Formula could discriminate differences in
readability levels of single sentence stem test items.
This was achieved by (1) using already developed sets of
test items and then estimating the readability levels of
those items as measured by the formula, (2) administering
the tests to students at different grade levels, and (3)
comparing students' test performance on items estimated
at their assigned reading level with performance on items
covering the same content but written above their
assigned reading level. Reading ability and content
knowledge were controlled by including only students
reading on grade level who had previously scored at least
75% on a test of content knowledge.
The study was quasi-experimental in design with two
independent variables (readability level and grade
level), and one dependent variable (each class mean
score).
The test scores from 576 school children from 40 classes
within grades two through five were used in this study.
Each grade level received test items estimated to be
within a range of four different readability levels (on
grade, plus 1, 2, 3 grades above). The data were
subjected to a one-between and one-within groups analysis
of variance design.
Significant differences were found within grade levels on
class mean performance scores across the four levels of
readability. Significant differences were found between
the test scores of students at intermediate level (grades
four and five) and primary level (grades two and three)
on items estimated to be written at specified readability
levels.
The results tended to indicate that the formula can
discriminate between the readability level of test items
for primary grades and intermediate grades. The results
appeared to establish the formula as a potentially valid
measure of the estimate of the readability level of
single sentence stem test items and could hold promise in
answering some validity concerns of test developers and
classroom teachers.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE VOCABULARY READABILITY LOAD
REQUIRED OF CHILDREN IN RECENTLY PUBLISHED HEALTH
TEXTBOOKS FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
Author: JONES, HAROLD C.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1953
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: AN OBJECTIVE STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF EXISTING
OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION MATERIALS AND OF COUNSELOR
ABILITY TO SELECT SUCH MATERIALS.
Author: MCGARVEY, WILLIA G.
Degree: PHD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1954
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: APPLICATION OF CERTAIN READABILITY TECHNIQUES TO CALCULUS
TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7511439
Author: VERDERBER, NADINE LUCILLE
Degree: PHD
School: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1974
Pages: 183
Source: DAI-A 35/11, p. 7145, May 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, SCIENCES (0714)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A PROTOTYPE READABILITY FORMULA FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGES:
APPLICATION TO THE SPANISH LANGUAGE
Pub No: 9111397
Author: PLAZA MORA, JORGE ELIECER
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON
Date: 1991
Pages: 167
Adviser: POWERS, RICHARD D.
Source: DAI-A 52/02, p. 333, Aug 1991
Subject: MASS COMMUNICATIONS (0708); EDUCATION, READING (0535);
EDUCATION, TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS (0288); LANGUAGE,
MODERN (0291)
Abstract: This study developed a readability formula for English
based on number of words per sentence and percentage of
words outside the list of the most common 1,000 words in
American English as listed by Carroll, Davies and
Richman. Criterion passages were 358 prose passages in
the McCall-Crabbs Standard Text Lesson in Reading (1979
edition).
Simple and Multiple regression analysis were computed to
build the following readability Formula for English:
G$/sb[75]$=.87606 +.20108 Average Sentence Length +.12201
PCT Non-Carroll words.
This readability formula explained 44.1% of the variance
in the criterion--not as high as that of the Dale-Chall
formula but almost as good as Flesch, Farr-Jenkins-
Paterson, Gunning and Coleman formulas as recalculated on
the same passages.
The English formula was validated by correlating its
results to those of other formulas developed by Dale-
Chall, Flesch, Farr-Jenkins-Paterson, Gunning and Coleman
in their original forms and the versions recalculated on
the 1979 edition of the Standard Test Lesson in Reading
passages. The new readability formula for English is
similar to the other established formulas for estimating
reading difficulty.
Word frequency was used as the indicator of semantic
complexity with the hope that the new formula could be a
prototype readability formula for other languages which
have word frequency lists. As a trial of this possibility
it was applied to the Spanish language. The English
formula regression coefficients were used for the Spanish
formula but the frequency word counts were based on
Martinez Reding's list of the 1,000 most frequent Spanish
words in contemporary writing.
The validation of the Spanish readability formula was
done by correlating its results on six selected passages
with those of other formulas such as Spaulding, Crawford
and Fernandez Huerta formulas and scores from the FRASE
and the Cloze procedure.
In general the results show that the new Spanish formula
gauges the grade of difficulty of passages as well as
does the Spaulding formula, and a bit better than do the
other Spanish readability formulas.
The correlation between the formula scores and mean
percentage scores of Cloze tests with a small sample of
native Spanish speakers showed that these two methods
give similar estimates of the difficulty level of
passages.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A PSYCHOLINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF THE MISCUES OF LEARNING
DISABLED BLACK ENGLISH SPEAKING STUDENTS AND THEIR
RELATIONSHIP TO READABILITY
Pub No: 8204698
Author: LEVIN, PATRICIA OPPENHEIM
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Date: 1981
Pages: 190
Source: DAI-A 42/09, p. 3930, Mar 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535); LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS (0290)
Abstract: This study began with the position that reading is a
meaning act, an interaction between language and thought.
The reading process is not passive but active. The reader
selects, transforms and processes information to go
beyond the information given. The underlying purpose of
this study was to explore Goodman's original hypothesis
that material is more readable when it more nearly
approximates the oral language of the reader. This study
investigated whether dialect trade book stories were more
readable for Black English speaking Learning Disabled
students who had a specific disability in the area of
reading. The study, also, investigated the readability of
an uncontrolled standard English story with a
linguistically controlled standard English story for
Black English speaking Learning Disabled students.
Thirty-four Black English speaking students, as
determined by the Education Study Center's Dialect
Proficiency Test, from upper elementary self-contained
Learning Disability rooms located in a large inner city
school district, read aloud and retold three
stylistically different stories without assistance. The
selections included a story written in uncontrolled
standard English taken from Scott Foresman's Reading
Unlimited Series, a linguistically controlled story taken
from Bloomfield and Barnhart's text Let's Read, and a
Black English trade book by Greenfield and Steptoe
written in standard orthography.
Analysis of the data collected indicate that the two
standard English stories are not significantly different
in readability. The results of this study also indicate
that the miscues in this small but representative sample
of Black English speakers who are two or more years below
grade placement level and identified as learning disabled
with a specific disability in reading are fewer and of
higher quality when the dialect of the instructional
material more closely approximates the dialect of the
reader.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY ANALYSIS OF READING MATERIALS USED IN ADULT
BASIC EDUCATION CLASSES IN TENNESSEE
Pub No: 7302488
Author: RAKES, THOMAS ARTHUR
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
Date: 1972
Pages: 99
Source: DAI-A 33/08, p. 4072, Feb 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY COMPARISON OF THE A BEKA BOOK READING
SERIES WITH SELECTED BASAL READERS IN GRADES ONE THROUGH
SIX
Pub No: 8818348
Author: PHELPS, CONNIE LEA
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
Date: 1987
Pages: 112
Source: DAI-A 49/07, p. 1747, Jan 1989
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Although extensive basal readability research has been
conducted by Fox, no research has been done on the
leading reading series used by private Christian schools.
The purpose of this study was to compare the readability
levels of the A Beka Book Reading Series with readability
levels of five other reading programs. To accomplish this
purpose, the readability levels of 32 books and the
stories within each book in grades one through six of the
A Beka Book readers was determined. The variation of the
estimation of readability level (ERL) rating from the
publisher's designated level (PDL) was compared at the
intrabook, interbook, and interseries levels as an
extension of Fox's earlier research.
The study utilized the same readability formula, Fry's
Readability Program for the microcomputer, and sampling
techniques as Fox's research. Selections were made from
the beginning, middle, and end of each story of at least
one-hundred word length. The readability sampling of A
Beka Book readers included 2,316 passages in 844 stories
to find the ERL rating of each story.
Intrabook variation of the ERL rating from the PDL
indicates 86.1 percent of the stories in A Beka Book
readers are placed above the PDL. The interbook analyses
indicates less variation of the A Beka Book stories from
the PDL rating in the primary grades than the
intermediate grade levels. Most A Beka Book readers have
ERL book sequences that vary five or more levels from the
PDL. The correlation between the PDL and ERL ratings of
the A Beka Book readers is.77. Interseries analysis
indicates stories in all six series fail to match the
instructional grade level. The five series used in the
comparison generally have books sequenced by level of
difficulty, but the readability levels are above the PDL.
Recommendations resulting from the study include: (a)
publishers make available to educators more information
regarding readability of basal reading series, and (b)
that individual readability ratings of stories be listed
in the teacher's manuals along with suggestions for
sequencing stories according to the readability level.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY COUNT ON BILINGUAL BICULTURAL MATERIALS IN
USE TO TEACH READING IN SPANISH AND IN ENGLISH AT THE
FIRST GRADE LEVEL IN BILINGUAL BICULTURAL PROGRAMS IN THE
DENVER METROPOLITAN AREA
Pub No: 8200800
Author: LOBATO, RAYMOND JOSEPH
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO AT BOULDER
Date: 1981
Pages: 137
Source: DAI-A 42/08, p. 3416, Feb 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to assess the materials that
were used to teach Spanish and English reading in the
bilingual bicultural classrooms at the first grade level
in the Denver metropolitan area.
The population and sample consisted of 29 classroom
teachers in the Districts 50, 14 and 1 of Adams County
and District 1 of Denver County. Of this population, 86%
or 25 teachers, participated in the study. The sample
materials that were assessed consisted of materials that
were district and commercially developed to teach reading
in Spanish and English.
A questionnaire was formulated to acquire information
from first grade teachers who taught reading in Spanish
and English relative to materials most commonly used in
the classroom, the teacher's judgment of degree of
difficulty of the materials and teacher's preferences for
the materials. After tabulating and analyzing this
information, the results were that the most commonly used
materials to teach reading in Spanish were supplemented
with other materials. The materials most commonly used to
teach English were a part of a definite series. A
readability count taken of each particular material in
use revealed that there was a discrepancy between
publisher's recommendations and readability count in the
materials used in English and in Spanish. Translations
affected the readability count in Spanish and in English.
The materials used to teach reading in Spanish and
English revealed a difference between readability level,
teacher's judgment of degree of difficulty and teacher's
preference.
The materials most commonly used to teach reading in
Spanish and English should be evaluated and teachers
should have input in the selection of materials. The
volume of supplementary materials to teach reading in
Spanish should be reduced for effective articulation. The
teachers should participate in the selection of the
materials used to teach reading in English to provide
materials suitable for the Mexican American child in the
Denver metropolitan area. It should be determined whether
there is a correlation between the Mexican American
background proficiency in Spanish and the materials used.
The cultural aspects of the bilingual materials and the
spontaneous creations of materials should be studied and
compiled for future publications.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY EVALUATION OF SELECTED INTERMEDIATE GRADE
SOCIAL STUDIES TOPICS FROM EIGHT ENCYCLOPEDIAS.
Pub No: 7316587
Author: DOHRMAN, MARY HARDWICK
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO
Date: 1972
Pages: 222
Source: DAI-A 34/02, p. 556, Aug 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY FORMULA FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BASED
UPON THE RINSLAND VOCABULARY
Pub No: 0020569
Author: TRIBE, EDWARD BARRETT, SR
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
Date: 1957
Pages: 87
Source: DAI- 17/04, p. 788, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY GRAPH FOR RUSSIAN
Pub No: 7014088
Author: ROCK, ERNEST LOUIS
Degree: PHD
School: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1969
Pages: 191
Source: DAI-A 31/02, p. 567, Aug 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY STUDY IN INTERMEDIATE COLLEGE GERMAN
Pub No: 7210966
Author: HALL, ALVIN LEE
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
Date: 1971
Pages: 138
Source: DAI-A 32/09, p. 5104, Mar 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A READABILITY STUDY OF ENGLISH STUDENT MATERIALS USED IN
THE SEMINARY HOME STUDY PROGRAM PREPARED BY THE SEMINARY
CURRICULUM STAFF COMPARED WITH THE READING ABILITIES OF A
SAMPLE OF THE YOUTH ENROLLED IN THAT PROGRAM IN THE
UNITED STATES AND CANADA.
Pub No: 7428404
Author: TYLER, THOMAS LEE
Degree: EDD
School: BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
Date: 1974
Pages: 72
Source: DAI-A 35/06, p. 3412, Dec 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A readability study of social studies and science
textbooks
Pub No: MK21477
Author: English, Ida Perpetua Marrie;
Degree: MEd
School: MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND (CANADA)
Date: 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: ASPECTS OF READABILITY IN THE SOCIAL STUDIES
Pub No: 0006682
Author: PETERSON, ELEANOR MARIE
Degree: PHD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1953
Pages: 141
Source: DAI- 14/01, p. 72, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: ASSESSING READABILITY FOR SPANISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE:
THE FRY GRAPH AND CLOZE PROCEDURE.
Pub No: 7714719
Author: GARCIA, WILFRED FRANK
Degree: EDD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY TEACHERS COLLEGE
Date: 1977
Pages: 135
Source: DAI-A 38/01, p. 136, Jul 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: ASSESSING THE READABILITY OF ENGLISH TEXTS FOR AUSTRIAN
PUPILS (TEXTS)
Author: GIENDL, ELISABETH
School: KARL-FRANZENS UNIVERSITAET GRAZ (AUSTRIA)
Date: 1988
Pages: 192
Source: DAI-C 51/01, p. 4, Spring 1990
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The purpose of this dissertation was to develop a method
for assessing the readability of English texts for
Austrian pupils. In order to do this, it was necessary to
look at the psychological processes involved in reading.
Readability and comprehension were discussed within the
scope of a model of reader-text interaction.
For the development of a readability formula for Austrian
pupils the following steps were taken: (1) Choice of a
reliable criterion measure of comprehension. The cloze
procedure was chosen as the most powerful and reliable
measure. (2) Identification of a number of objective
linguistic variables. Among the vast number of variables
that have been proposed in readability research 38 were
chosen. The choice was based on considerations of
reliability, practicality and predictive power. (3) Each
of these 38 variables was correlated with the cloze
comprehension scores on a set of 23 passages of varied
content and difficulty. 3000 cloze tests, taken by 1000
Austrian pupils, were analyzed. (4) The variables that
best predict readability, i.e., that have the highest
correlation coefficient with the criterion, were
selected. (5) Using the method of multiple regression
analysis, the remaining variables were combined into two
formulae: a computer formula and a hand formula. The two
formulae contain four variables each and have validities
of r =.920 (hand formula) and r =.923 (computer formula).
To round up the assessment of readability and
comprehension and to account for those influences not
considered by the formulae, a method of evaluating the
comprehensibility of a text was proposed. It consists of
a brief checklist dealing with questions of motivation,
content and subject matter, organization and coherence,
and is intended to be used in conjunction with one of the
two formulae.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLLEGE STUDENTS'
READING ABILITY AND THE READABILITY OF THEIR TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 8006259
Author: GIORDANO, THEODORE BRUCE
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1979
Pages: 79
Source: DAI-A 40/09, p. 4979, Mar 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF READABILITY AND OTHER FACTORS OF SELECTED
BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS
Pub No: 5902939
Author: PETERSON, DEAN ANDREW
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Date: 1959
Pages: 315
Source: DAI- 20/02, p. 565, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF READABILITY FACTORS OF EIGHT READABILITY
SYSTEMS AND THE CLOZE PROCEDURE.
Pub No: 7729531
Author: CURRIER, MICHAEL ELLIS
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA - LINCOLN
Date: 1977
Pages: 164
Source: DAI-A 38/07, p. 3994, Jan 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A study of students' self selection of reading meterials
in relation to readability, reading ability, sex and
choice within interest areas
Pub No: MK49385
Author: Bawtinheimer, David Laurie;
Degree: MA
School: UNIVERSITY OF VICTORIA (CANADA)
Date: 1980
ISBN: 0-315-01528-4
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY, INTEREST, AND USEFULNESS OF
SELECTED MATERIALS FOR RETARDED READERS IN GRADES FOUR TO
EIGHT
Author: RIDGWAY, ROBERT W.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Date: 1955
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY INTEREST, AND USEFULNESS OF
SELECTED MATERIALS FOR RETARDED READERS IN GRADES SEVEN
TO TWELVE
Author: BRUNING, HERBERT I.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS
Date: 1954
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY LEVELS OF THE PROSE SELECTIONS
IN THE MOST FREQUENTLY ADOPTED ALABAMA HIGH SCHOOL
LITERATURE TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7613919
Author: LEIGH, LOUISE MCGINTY
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA
Date: 1975
Pages: 194
Source: DAI-A 36/12, p. 7977, Jun 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF DRUG EDUCATION MATERIALS IN
GRADES FIVE THROUGH TWELVE
Author: MORRIS, EMMA D. RICHARDSON
Degree: PHD
School: TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY
Date: 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF GENERAL BUSINESS TRAINING
TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 0011577
Author: ANDERSON, GEORGE W.
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1955
Pages: 83
Source: DAI- 15/05, p. 745, Aug 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL BUSINESS LAW
TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 0019627
Author: GOODMAN, DAVID GERSON
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1956
Pages: 109
Source: DAI- 17/01, p. 61, Mar 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF JUNIOR AND COMMUNITY
COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS USED IN THE ACADEMIC AREAS AND THE
READING ABILITIES OF STUDENTS USING THE TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7820661
Author: AUVENSHINE, ANNA LEE BANKS
Degree: EDD
School: BAYLOR UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 158
Source: DAI-A 39/05, p. 2710, Nov 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, COMMUNITY COLLEGE (0275)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION
PAMPHLETS AND THEIR UTILITY IN THE VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE OF
A SELECTED SAMPLE OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
Pub No: 7110854
Author: VAN VLIET, JACK
Degree: EDD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1970
Pages: 137
Source: DAI-A 31/11, p. 5784, May 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING (0519)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A study of the readability of on-screen text
Pub No: 9949887
Author: Weisenmiller, Eric Michael;
Degree: PhD
School: VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1999
Pages: 141
Adviser: Sanders, Mark E.
ISBN: 0-599-50729-2
Source: DAI-A 60/11, p. 3894, May 2000
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION,
TECHNOLOGY (0710)
Abstract: This study examined the readability of fonts. More
specifically, it investigated how four different fonts
effected both reading rate and reading comprehension. The
typefaces Georgia, Verdana, (which, according to their
designers, optimize onscreen readability) Times, and
Arial (both designed for digital output to hard copy)
were displayed as treatments both on a computer screen
and on paper. The purpose of the study was to determine
whether sans serif and serif typefaces optimized for
onscreen viewing significantly improve reading rate and
reading comprehension. Comparisons were made among the
typefaces using a categorical independent variable
postmeasure-only research design to determine the level
of dependent variables (rate, comprehension). The group
means of each of twelve treatment groups (N = 264) were
analyzed using analyses of variance to determine if
either of the variables (presentation mode or font) had a
statistically significant effect upon reading rate and/or
reading comprehension of a sample taken from a population
of subjects attending a midwestern state university. No
significant difference was found among reading speed or
reading comprehension scores of subjects tested who read
text which was typeset in any of the four typefaces.
However, significant difference was found between the
presentation modes used in the experiment.
Since it was found that 8-bit onscreen text was not
significantly more readable than 600dpi text on paper,
and 1-bit onscreen text was found to be significantly
less readable than onscreen text and 600dpi text on
paper, this research concludes that for purposes of ease
of readability, onscreen text is better suited to be
rendered as 8-bit onscreen text than 1-bit onscreen text.
Also, the findings indicate that 8-bit onscreen text was
not found to be significantly less readable than 600dpi
text on paper. Also, due to the various typefaces
currently being used in digital typography and the
differing presentation media, further exploration of the
readability of onscreen text should examine more fonts
and screen display variables.

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A study of the readability of selected fourth and fifth
grade science texts
Pub No: EP00174
Author: Tanzy, Frankie Smith;
Degree: MA
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT EL PASO
Date: 1956
Source: MAI 39/07, p. 59, 2001
Subject: EDUCATION, SCIENCES (0714)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF SELECTED INTRODUCTORY
MANAGEMENT TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7526835
Author: BURKHEAD, MARIE BROWN
Degree: DBA
School: TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY
Date: 1975
Pages: 169
Source: DAI-A 36/06, p. 3340, Dec 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, BUSINESS (0688)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF STANDARDIZED READING TESTS
AS MEASURED BY THE TYPE-TOKEN RATIO.
Pub No: 7909412
Author: JONES, DONALD
Degree: EDD
School: MEMPHIS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 109
Source: DAI-A 39/11, p. 6505, May 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READABILITY OF A
CHEMISTRY TEXTBOOK AND PERFORMANCE IN FIRST YEAR COLLEGE
CHEMISTRY
Pub No: 8326631
Author: FALKOWSKI, HENRY STEVEN
Degree: EDD
School: WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1983
Pages: 142
Source: DAI-A 44/07, p. 2026, Jan 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The subjects of this study were fifty-two year college
chemistry students. These students were of varying majors
enrolled at Potomac State College of West Virginia
University at Keyser, West Virginia.
The following hypotheses were tested using post-test
procedures. (1) There will be a positive correlation
between the scores on a commercially available
standardized general reading test and the final chemistry
grade. (2) There will be a positive correlation between
the mean scores on special chemistry reading tests and
final chemistry grades. (3) There will be a positive
correlation between the standardized general reading test
scores and the average test scores of the special
chemistry reading tests. (4) There will be a positive
correlation between scores on the special and technical
vocabulary test and the average scores obtained on the
special chemistry reading tests. (5) There should be a
significant difference between the average chemistry
reading test scores of students that were provided with
vocabulary lists and definitions and those students who
were not so provided.
These hypotheses were tested using the null form. The
null hypothesis was accepted ((alpha) = 0.05) for
hypothesis 1 through 4. The null hypothesis was rejected
((alpha) = 0.05) for hypothesis 5.
In addition the following conclusions were drawn. (1)
Chemistry instructors should take into consideration the
reading level of their textbook and the reading ability
of their students when they are selecting a new textbook
for their course. (2) The use of vocabulary lists and
definitions in chemistry which are isolated from the
chapter reading assignments do not help students
comprehend their textbook reading assignments. (3) There
is a positive relationship between the student's score on
the special chemistry vocabulary test given at the start
of the semester and the student's final chemistry exam
average. (4) A student who is a good general reader does
not necessarily have to be a good reader of chemistry
textbooks.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN
ACCOUNTING COURSES TO THE READABILITY OF REQUIRED
TEXTBOOKS AND THE READING ABILITY OF TWO-YEAR ACCOUNTING
STUDENTS
Pub No: 8216651
Author: PETERSON, ERIK ALFRID
Degree: PHD
School: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 124
Source: DAI-A 43/02, p. 381, Aug 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745)
Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the
degree to which the readability of accounting textbooks
and two-year accounting students' reading ability were
related to academic achievement.
Procedure. This research used two designs. Design one
consisted of two samples from the population of two-year
accounting students. One sample of ten was drawn from
students having a 3.00 G.P.A. or higher in twelve
selected courses; a second sample of ten was drawn from
those having 3.00 G.P.A. or lower. An analysis of
variance was used to compare vocabulary, comprehension,
and total reading scores, as measured by the Nelson-Denny
Reading Test, Form C. After ascertaining the readability
of the twelve required texts, an index score was
formulated. In design two the population was separated
into three categories; those who received A's, B's, or
C's in the twelve selected courses. The mean index scores
of fifteen subjects in each cell were compared to
determine if grades made a difference or if courses made
a difference.
Findings. Design one indicated that students having a
3.00 G.P.A. or higher had significantly higher
vocabulary, total reading, and index scores than those
students having a 3.00 or lower G.P.A. Design two
indicated those receiving A's had a higher index score
than did those receiving C's. The Auditing course, which
had an 'easier' text differed significantly from the
other courses index scores. When total reading scores
were considered, subjects receiving C's had higher scores
than subjects receiving A's.
Conclusions. It was concluded that students' reading
ability and text readability had a significant
relationship to academic achievement in accounting. The
index score may be utilized as a predictive model to
identify students who might experience academic
difficulty in accounting as well as other technical
curriculum.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN
COLLEGE COURSES TO THE READABILITY OF COURSE TEXTBOOKS
AND THE READING ABILITY OF STUDENTS ENROLLED IN SELECTED
CLASSES AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY.
Pub No: 7903992
Author: LAWSON, NORA DAVENPORT
Degree: PHD
School: IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 149
Source: DAI-A 39/08, p. 4761, Feb 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE READING LEVELS OF
PRACTICAL NURSING STUDENTS, READABILITY LEVELS OF
TEXTBOOKS, AND THE PASS/FAIL SCORES ON THE STATE BOARD
EXAMINATIONS FOR PRACTICAL NURSING STUDENTS.
Pub No: 7722863
Author: CAFFEY, MUSA BAKER
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI
Date: 1977
Pages: 91
Source: DAI-A 38/05, p. 2478, Nov 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING (0516)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIPS OF READABILITY AMONG
ELEMENTARY SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS ADOPTED BY TEXAS USING FIVE
MEASURES (CLOZE, FRY, DALE-CHALL)
Pub No: 8516731
Author: MONTGOMERY, LAURA E.
Degree: PHD
School: TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY
Date: 1985
Pages: 253
Source: DAI-A 46/06, p. 1578, Dec 1985
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Readability is one of the most prominent concerns when
selecting textbooks. In the fall of 1984, the Texas
Education Agency adopted five elementary textbooks for
use in grades four, five, and six. The textbooks were
published by Silver-Burdett; Holt, Rinehart, Winston;
Scott-Foresman; Addison-Wesley; and Merrill. The primary
purpose of this study was to examine the relationships
that existed between the publishers readability levels of
the five elementary science textbooks and the readability
levels established by the Fry Readability Graph, the
Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the cloze technique,
student judgment, and teacher judgment. Further, the
study sought to investigate the differences that existed
between girls and boys performances on the cloze
technique. One hundred thirty one students in grades
four, five, and six from three schools in a large
suburban school district in the Dallas-Fort Worth
Metroplex who had parental consent participated in the
study. The results of this study indicated that the Fry
Readability Graph produced readability levels more
consistent with the reading levels of intermediate grade
students than did the Dale-Chall Readability Formula. No
significant relationship existed between the students'
cloze performance and the Fry and the Dale-Chall
readability measures. No significant relationship existed
between the students' judgment and the teachers' judgment
of reading difficulty and the performance of the students
on the cloze tests. A significant relationship existed
between the teachers' judgment of reading difficulty and
the readability levels established by the Fry Readability
Graph, but not with the Dale-Chall Readability Formula.
Differences in the cloze scores by sex were not
significant. Significant differences existed between
students' performance on the cloze and the different
textbooks. Teaching experience apparently did not aid the
teachers in judging the readability levels of the science
textbooks similarly to the Fry or the Dale-Chall
readability measures. Due to the poor performance of the
subjects in this study on the cloze tests and the
frustration experienced by all of the groups, the
researcher recommends more research investigating the
cloze technique and other readability measures using
science materials.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM READABILITY LEVEL OF A
TEXT IN RELATION TO STUDENTS' READING LEVELS AND
ACHIEVEMENT IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE INTRODUCTORY
PSYCHOLOGY COURSE.
Pub No: 8007514
Author: SULLIVAN, VINCENT JOSEPH
Degree: EDD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1979
Pages: 66
Source: DAI-A 40/09, p. 4866, Mar 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, COMMUNITY COLLEGE (0275)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A TEXT IN CONTEMPORARY WORLD PROBLEMS WRITTEN IN
ACCORDANCE WITH SELECTED READABILITY AND INTEREST
FORMULAS
Pub No: 5901055
Author: FINKELSTEIN, MILTON
Degree: EDD
School: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
Date: 1958
Pages: 605
Source: DAI- 19/11, p. 2840, Fall 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, HISTORY OF (0520)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE VALIDITY OF THE CLOZE
PROCEDURE AS A MEASURE OF READABILITY.
Pub No: 7724575
Author: SHIBATA, FRANCES HATCH
Degree: PHD
School: SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 122
Source: DAI-A 38/05, p. 2693, Nov 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A VALIDATION OF THE PREDICTIVE ACCURACY OF READABILITY
FORMULAS APPROPRIATE FOR USE WITH HIGH SCHOOL BIOLOGY
TEXTS.
Pub No: 7803295
Author: WESTERN, DOROTHY ELIZABETH
Degree: PHD
School: PURDUE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 273
Source: DAI-A 38/10, p. 6043, Apr 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, SCIENCES (0714)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: A WORD LIST TO BE EMPLOYED WITH THE DALE-CHALL
READABILITY FORMULA FOR THE APPRAISAL OF READABILITY
LEVELS OF CATHOLIC MATERIALS
Pub No: 6803722
Author: STOCKER, LEONARD PHILIP
Degree: PHD
School: FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
Date: 1967
Pages: 247
Source: DAI-A 28/11, p. 4496, May 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Bridging the second digital divide: Readability of news
Web sites
Pub No: 1412209
Author: Forbes, John David;
Degree: MA
School: CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FRESNO
Date: 2002
Pages: 65
Adviser: Copeland, Deborah
ISBN: 0-493-97514-4
Source: MAI 41/04, p. 876, Aug 2003
Subject: INFORMATION SCIENCE (0723); JOURNALISM (0391); EDUCATION,
TECHNOLOGY (0710)
Abstract: This study addresses the need to study the second digital
divide as represented in disparities in access to
information technology with respect to readability level.
Accordingly, this study examines differences in
readability level between print news sources and Internet
news sources. To accomplish the research task, this
thesis used a purposive sample technique to collect and
analyze articles from the eight most popular news
sources, four from the Internet and four from newspapers.
The findings show that the Internet news sources have a
significantly higher readability score than the print
news sources. The conclusions suggest that educators
become aware of the reading difficulty of Internet
sources and that Internet content creators produce
material that matches the reading level of a larger
population. The study also recommends additional study to
investigate factors that hinder members of the population
from accessing information technology.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: CERTAIN LANGUAGE FACTORS IN THE READABILITY OF PRIMARY
READING TEXTBOOKS
Author: STAIGER, RALPH C.
Degree: PHD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1953
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Chinese readability analysis using artificial neural
networks
Pub No: 3023689
Author: Jeng, Cheng-Chang;
Degree: EdD
School: NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY
Date: 2001
Pages: 202
Adviser: Lockard, James
ISBN: 0-493-35858-7
Source: DAI-A 62/08, p. 2715, Feb 2002
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535); EDUCATION, TECHNOLOGY (0710);
COMPUTER SCIENCE (0984); ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (0800)
Abstract: This study investigated numerous variables that may
affect readability and the potential of artificial neural
networks (ANN) to estimate Chinese readability while also
exploring the creation of more powerful linear models
than previous researchers'. To compare the accuracy among
four types of methods, the following were compared to
each other: a linear regression model proposed in
previous research, a linear regression model, ANNs, and
human judgments. The results of the comparisons show that
the ANN models offered the best estimates among the four
models when the comparisons were based on an instrument
compiled from 12 official textbooks. Human judgments
offered more reliable prediction results and none of the
mathematical models achieved good accuracy when the
comparisons were based on an instrument compiled from 12
children's books. These results suggest that human
judgments are preferable to computational models when
unfamiliar readings are involved. Issues discussed
include the validity of assigned readability levels and
the merits of the various models. Suggestions for future
research include adding grammatical variables, using
longer passages, and using fuzzy logic in instrument
design. Application of the ANN model to English
readability is a logical next step. Regardless of
language, accurate readability estimates are important to
the creation of linguistically suitable instructional
materials.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Classic readability formulas in an EFL context: Are they
valid for Japanese speakers?
Pub No: 9938670
Author: Greenfield, Gerald Richard;
Degree: EdD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1999
Pages: 281
Adviser: Ellis, R. J.
ISBN: 0-599-39966-X
Source: DAI-A 60/07, p. 2429, Jan 2000
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535); EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND
LITERATURE (0279)
Abstract: Classic readability formulas have been widely used to
match English texts to native English speaking readers,
for whom the formulas have been extensively validated.
They are also being used in ESL and EFL contexts, for
which they have not been conclusively validated. Recent
research on second language reading, together with
consideration of the nature of the formulas and
assumptions on which they rest, raise questions about
their validity for EFL readers.
This project investigates the validity of the Flesch,
Flesch-Kincaid, Bormuth, Coleman-Liau, and New Dale-Chall
formulas for predicting the readability of English texts
for Japanese college students. Validity is tested in
multiple ways, using a new criterion established by cloze
testing of 200 Japanese students over 31 passages
assembled by Bormuth. The observed difficulty of the
criterion passages is compared with their difficulty
predicted by each of the classic formulas, finding
Pearson correlations ranging from.691 to.861. Using the
models of the classic formulas, new regressions are made
against the new criterion, and their predictions of
difficulty are compared with predictions by each of the
original formulas. For Coleman-Liau, Bormuth, and Dale-
Chall models the recalculated formulas were found to be
significantly more accurate than the original formulas.
In addition, a new Miyazaki EFL Readability Index was
constructed using only two easily measured text
variables. Producing scores on a 100-point scale, the
formula has an adjusted coefficient of determination
of.726, superior to all but the recalculated Bormuth
formula. Finally, the relationship of observed difficulty
to readers' TOEFL scores was explored and found to be too
weak to support indexing readability to TOEFL proficiency
of this group.
On the strength of these findings, the classic formulas
are probably valid for use with Japanese EFL students,
although they require interpretation. Increases in
accuracy found for recalculated formulas, while
statistically significant, may not be sufficient to
replace formulas conveniently available for computer
measurement. However, the new Miyazaki Index offers an
easy to use alternative that also appears to be highly
valid.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: CLOZE TESTS AS MEASURES OF READABILITY AND COMPREHENSION
ABILITY
Pub No: 6302586
Author: BORMUTH, JOHN ROBERT
Degree: EDD
School: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1962
Pages: 205
Source: DAI- 23/11, p. 4218, Sep 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: COHESIVE TIES, CLOZE, AND TEACHER RATINGS AS MEASURES OF
READABILITY AND WRITING QUALITY
Pub No: 8304808
Author: RENFROW, DONATA
Degree: PHD
School: GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 150
Source: DAI-A 43/10, p. 3278, Apr 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the
relationship of cohesive ties in essays to a measure of
reader comprehension (cloze test) and a measure of
teacher judgment of the essays' quality (analytic
rating).
Researchers have estimated the readability of prose.
Formulas primarily used word and sentence length as the
best predictors of reading difficulty. Writers, however,
could not manipulate those variables consistently to
adjust comprehensibility of a text. Other measures of
readability, based on syntax, had a sentence-level focus
and did not accommodate semantic cues. Recent research
has introduced the possibility of including semantic cues
and extending the unit of analysis to larger units of
discourse. Halliday and Hasan (1976, 1980) provided a
system for analyzing prose by scoring cohesive ties which
join sentences as a text.
Method. Seventy-two essays, which were assigned analytic
ratings in a previous study, were prepared for cloze
testing and given to college freshman. Mean cloze scores
based on four readings were calculated. Each essay was
scored for cohesive ties. Intercorrelations were
calculated for ties, cloze scores, and ratings. A partial
correlation factored out the influence of essay length.
Results. The correlation between ties and analytic
ratings was .440. Of the ties, conjunctive and lexical
had the highest correlations (r = .364 and r = .391).
Correlations between cloze scores and cohesive ties and
cloze scores and analytic ratings were small.
Conclusions. The relationship between analytic ratings
and cohesive ties was moderate. Variations among the
categories indicate some ties were more strongly related
to ratings than others. A low correlation between ratings
and cloze scores suggested they may measure different
attributes of prose. Correlations with cloze may have
been depressed because of low score variance. Continued
research with these variables using other types of prose
is warranted.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: COMPARISON OF READABILITY OF SPECIALITY KNOWLEDGE TESTS
TO READING ABILITIES OF AIR FORCE ENLISTED PERSONNEL
(UNITED STATES AIR FORCE)
Pub No: 9328681
Author: BAUGH, JANET KAY
Degree: PHD
School: TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
Date: 1993
Pages: 144
Adviser: SEAMAN, DON F.; GARCIA, GONZALO JR.
Source: DAI-A 54/05, p. 1741, Nov 1993
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535); EDUCATION, TESTS AND
MEASUREMENTS (0288); EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING
(0516)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine how well the
Specialty Knowledge Tests (SKTs) selected for this study
matched the airman population assigned to their
respective Air Force career fields in regard to reading
grade level (RGL). The specific research question that
was examined in this study was to determine how closely
the mean RGLs of each of the 20 E-5 SKTs matched the mean
entrance RGLs of the airman population in each of the 20
corresponding Air Force specialties at the mean RGL or
within 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean RGL of
the airman population (reduced RGL).
Previous readability researchers have concentrated on
using RGL formulas to estimate the RGLs of prose. In
contrast, only a few studies were found that estimated
the readability of multiple-choice tests. For this study,
the FORCAST Readability Formula (Caylor, Sticht, Fox, &
Ford, 1973) was used to collect the data and estimate the
RGLs of each of the SKTs. In addition, the instructions
were adapted to be applicable for use with multiple-
choice tests.
The basic design of this study was a comparison of the
mean RGLs of the 20 E-5 SKTs selected for this study and
the mean entrance RGLs of the airman population in the
corresponding Air Force specialties. Then the mean RGL
scores from each of the SKTs were compared to the mean
entrance RGL scores of airmen in each of their respective
Air Force specialties using data from Faneuff's (1990)
'Reading Grade Level on the Air Force Reading Abilities
Test (AFRAT) Scale.'
The results of this study indicated that all of the
estimated mean RGLs of the 20 E-5 SKTs were above the
mean RGLs and reduced RGLs of the airman population from
the corresponding Air Force specialties. Therefore, the
RGLs did not match. It was concluded that the readability
levels of the 20 E-5 SKTS selected for this study were
written above the reading abilities of the airman
population from each corresponding Air Force specialty.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: COMPREHENSION AND READABILITY OF DRUG INFORMATION: A
COMPARATIVE STUDY AT DIFFERENT LEVELS OF READING ABILITY
Pub No: 8708570
Author: STRATTON, TIMOTHY PATRICK
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
Date: 1986
Pages: 277
Source: DAI-A 48/03, p. 619, Sep 1987
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Ley's Partial Model of Compliance suggests that patients
who understand information given to them are more likely
to remember the information and are more likely to be
satisfied with the information. The model then suggests
that these components will lead to greater patient
compliance with medication regimens.
To test the model, Patient Package Inserts (PPIs)
describing thiazide diuretics from the American
Association of Retired Persons, the American Medical
Association, the Canadian Pharmaceutical Association, the
Food and Drug Administration, the National Association of
Retail Druggists, the United States Pharmacopoeial
Convention and a Test PPI written by the Principal
Investigator were used. The SMOG Readability Formula was
used to determine the grade levels at which PPIs were
written.
One hundred thirty-six adults enrolled in GED classes in
Tucson and other communities and 107 adults enrolled in
remedial reading classes at Tucson's Pima Community
College were administered the Zip Scale reading placement
test and blocked by their reading abilities. Within each
of the three blocks, subjects randomly received one of
the seven information sheets or no sheet. Subjects took a
multiple-choice test based upon information common to all
of the PPIs, a cloze comprehension test based upon the
PPI which they read, and completed a satisfaction survey
which asked subjects to rate the PPI which they read.
Subjects also read five vignettes describing fictitious
patients taking thiazides who were confronted with
different barriers to compliance. Subjects indicated how
likely the fictitious patients were to overcome the
barriers to compliance.
Among this sample of remedial-reading adults, the Test
PPI emerged as clearly superior to the others for any of
the variables measured. This result would behoove
providers of PPIs to rewrite PPIs, reducing the
difficulty of these documents as much as possible.
Ley's Partial Model of Compliance did not accurately
describe the associations between Understanding, Memory,
Satisfaction and Compliance for this sample. A New Model
emerged describing different associations between these
components and between subject reading ability and PPI
readability.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: COMPREHENSION OF THREE LEVELS OF SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIAL
AS DESIGNATED BY A READABILITY FORMULA
Pub No: 6816774
Author: ALLBAUGH, NANCY JEAN
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
Date: 1968
Pages: 150
Source: DAI-A 29/06, p. 1665, Dec 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF READABILITY FACTORS.
Pub No: 7407414
Author: NORTON, WILLIAM HILL
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
Date: 1973
Pages: 165
Source: DAI-A 34/09, p. 5727, Mar 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: CONTENT COMPARABILITY AND READABILITY: THEIR IMPACT ON
SELECTED TEXTBOOKS AND SELECTED ACHIEVEMENT TEST
BATTERIES' SUBTESTS
Pub No: 8904613
Author: HEGMON, PORTIA JEAN
Degree: EDD
School: MEMPHIS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1988
Pages: 143
Adviser: RAKES, THOMAS A.
Source: DAI-A 50/01, p. 65, Jul 1989
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION,
ELEMENTARY (0524); EDUCATION, READING (0535); EDUCATION,
TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS (0288)
Abstract: This study investigates whether there is comparability
between the content of science textbooks and science
subtests of standardized tests and whether the reading
difficulty levels between science subtests of
standardized tests and among science textbooks at
specified grade levels differ significantly. The science
subtests of two popular achievement test batteries and
four science textbook series were analyzed.
Research hypotheses. (1) There is no difference between
science subtest content and science textbook content. (2)
The indices of readability do not vary between selected
science subtests at specified grade levels. (3) The
indices of readability do not vary among science
textbooks at specified grade levels. (4) There is no
difference in the content of science textbooks at
specified grade levels.
No significant difference was found to exist in the
content of the majority (ten) of the science
subtest/science textbook content comparisons. In the
remaining six, significant differences were found in the
science subtest/science textbook content comparisons.
A significant difference was found to exist between the
reading difficulty levels of the Stanford Intermediate 1
science subtest and the Metropolitan Achievement Test
Form L (grades 3.5-4.9) science subtest. No significant
difference was found to exist between the reading
difficulty levels of the Metropolitan Achievement Test
Form L (grades 5.0-6.9) science subtest and the Stanford
Achievement Test Intermediate 2 (grades 5.5-7.9) science
subtest.
No significant difference was found to exist in the
reading difficulty levels of science textbooks at the
fourth and sixth grade levels. Significant differences
were found to exist in the reading difficulty levels of
textbooks at the fifth grade level.
No significant difference was found to exist in the
content of science textbooks at the fourth grade level. A
significant difference was found to exist in the content
of science textbooks at the fifth and sixth grade levels.
The lack of close comparability in the content and
reading difficulty levels of science textbooks and
science subtests indicates that there is a difference in
the curricular intentions of school districts and
textbook and test publishers. This lack of congruence
could be partly responsible for low standardized test
performance of students in science. This disparity may
also be the basis for faculty decision making on the part
of state, local, and building level administrators and
teachers. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.)


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: CONTENT READABILITY AND SOCIAL STUDIES ACHIEVEMENT OF
INTERMEDIATE STUDENTS READING BELOW GRADE LEVEL.
Pub No: 7713935
Author: CONKLING, RICHARD DYSON
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
Date: 1976
Pages: 215
Source: DAI-A 38/01, p. 98, Jul 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: DETERMINATION OF THE APPROPRIATENESS OF ONCOLOGY
LITERATURE FOR THE NURSE BY MEASURING READING LEVEL OF
THE NURSE AND ONCOLOGY LITERATURE (READABILITY)
Pub No: 8620118
Author: HENDERSON, BILLIE WILBURN
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA
Date: 1986
Pages: 90
Source: DAI-A 47/06, p. 2002, Dec 1986
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); HEALTH
SCIENCES, NURSING (0569)
Abstract: Nursing, like many other professions, is in the midst of
exploding theory and technology. With this knowledge
explosion, accepted methodologies rapidly become
obsolete. Maintaining currency in nursing practice is a
must. One of the areas of health care that has
experienced the exploding theory and technology is
oncology nursing. One avenue enabling nurses to expand
their knowledge and keep their skills current is the
large number of professional journals.
Literature on oncology nursing has proliferated in the
past decade. Authors of the publications exhibit a broad
range of educational preparation. Manuscripts may be
written by nurses holding diplomas, associate and
baccalaureate degrees as well as master's and doctorates.
Authors may be physicians, physiologists or sociologists.
The audience for these journals include nurses who hold
two-year associate, diploma, baccalaureate, masters and
doctoral degrees. The diversity of educational
preparation of the reader and the authors of published
material initiated the question which instituted this
study: Was nursing literature readable by the practicing
nurse?
The purpose of the study was to determine the readability
of oncology literature for the practicing nurse. The
grade level readability of selected oncology literature
and the grade level at which practicing nurses read was
measured and the relationship of the data determined.
This was a descriptive study using the Fry Readability
Formula, adapted, and the Nelson-Denny Reading Test
(NDRT). Descriptive statistics for reading level and
readability were calculated. A t-test for independent
groups was used to determine statistical significance
between the mean reading level and readability. A Mann-
Whitney test was used to determine statistically
significant differences between the median reading level
and readability. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric ANOVA were used to
compare the means and medians of the three sources of
oncology literature.
Analysis of the data revealed that 54% of the nurses
could read all of the literature. Data from the NDRT
indicted that the reading grade level range was grade 8
through 16 with a mean of 14.30. The Fry Readability
grade level ranged from grade 8 through 16, with a mean
of 13.71.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: DETERMINING READABILITY BY COMPUTER ANALYSIS USING THE
FOURIER TRANSFORM TO CALCULATE THE SPATIAL FREQUENCIES OF
WORDS
Pub No: 8806924
Author: PIEPMEIER, KAREN SWANSON
Degree: PHD
School: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1987
Pages: 112
Source: DAI-A 49/03, p. 471, Sep 1988
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The black and white pattern formed when an individual
word is printed on a page was analyzed by the Fourier
transform. The Fourier transform produces a sequence of
sinusodial functions, usually called spatial frequencies,
whose amplitudes depend upon the particular pattern
analyzed. These amplitudes were examined to determine if
the amplitudes of the spatial frequencies with particular
frequencies indicated a level of readability.
An extensive literature search indicated that there were
no studies using the Fourier transform to study the
readability of words. There were, however, many studies
that indicated a renewed interest in a fast and easy
method of determining readability.
Words for this study were randomly chosen from Dale's 769
Word List, easier words, and Fry's word list of Spelling
Demons, harder words. The data from the statistical
analysis of the amplitudes of the spatial frequencies of
these words correctly predicted whether the word was on
the hard list of words or on the easy list of words with
over 80 percent accuracy.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: DEVELOPMENTAL SENTENCE SCORING AS A MEASURE OF
READABILITY FOR FIRST-GRADE READING TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7523149
Author: POWERS, WANDA CHASON
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT GREENSBORO
Date: 1975
Pages: 160
Source: DAI-A 36/04, p. 1924, Oct 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: DEVELOPMENT AND PILOT TEST OF A PHOTOGRAPH READABILITY
INDEX FOR USE IN TEXTBOOK ADOPTION DECISIONS
Pub No: 9239731
Author: LANTZ, CHRISTOPHER JAMES
Degree: PHD
School: SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY AT CARBONDALE
Date: 1992
Pages: 346
Adviser: STADT, RON
Source: DAI-A 53/08, p. 2781, Feb 1993
Subject: EDUCATION, TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS (0288); EDUCATION,
CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION,
AGRICULTURAL (0517); EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
(0525)
Abstract: Methods from the fields of linguistics, reading, and
cognitive psychology were utilized in the development and
pilot test of a photograph readability instrument. The
instrument was designed to evaluate photographic
illustrations in textbooks. It assesses the level of
visual information processing for viewers of particular
photographs in both initial perception and prolonged
encoding phases. The initial phase gathers information on
how a viewer perceives a photograph during an initial
brief period, that is, at a first glance. The latter
phase entails extended exposure to the photograph and
endeavors to reveal how a viewer encodes information
while being influenced by a caption. Data gathered from
viewers were meant to be applied to local adoption
decisions for a particular text and group of students.
First glance fixations were assessed by projecting
photographs for 1/2 second, after which subjects drew
what they could remember about this display and completed
an affective questionnaire. Extended eye fixations were
assessed by exposing subjects to the image with caption,
and then a cognitive questionnaire was completed. Visual
differences between images were displayed in the form of
syntactic drawings, constructed from questionnaire data.
The instrument was edited by a panel of five media
experts. The revised instrument was then pilot tested on
two groups of 15 media students. One group of 15 students
evaluated 15 photos from one text and the other group
evaluated 15 photos from a competing text. Each student
evaluated one photograph, using an in-depth questionnaire
format. The pilot test results were presented to the same
panel of media experts, for use in an adoption decision.
The panel concluded that the pilot results were useful in
confirming subjective expert critique, but the complexity
of gathering this information would be prohibitive for
many adoption applications. The panel suggested that
textbook publishers would have a more appropriate
application for the instrument in the development of
teachers guides and for developing creative visual
thinking exercises.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A CHECKLIST FOR ASSESSING
THE READABILITY AND OVERALL QUALITY OF THE READING
TEXTBOOKS CURRENTLY USED IN THE YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC
Pub No: 8824137
Author: AL-MEKHLAFY, MOHAMED HATEM
Degree: PHD
School: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1988
Pages: 265
Adviser: FARR, ROGER
Source: DAI-A 49/09, p. 2599, Mar 1989
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Despite the fact that school textbooks have a great
impact on the quality of educational outcomes in the YAR,
little attention had been directed to the careful study
and evaluation of their appropriateness. The purpose of
this study was to develop and validate a checklist for
assessing the readability and overall quality of the
elementary reading textbooks currently used in the YAR.
The research design was both developmental and
descriptive: developmental in that the researcher
developed the proposed checklist and descriptive in that
the researcher described the process followed in
validating the checklist and assessing its reliability.
An examination of the checklist by two groups of
educational experts revealed supporting evidence for the
checklist's face and content validity. A pilot study
revealed that a group of potential users of the checklist
understood the directions and procedures for completing
the checklist's rating scale. The checklist's reliability
was assessed by conducting a test-retest study. The
reliability coefficients of the checklist and its
subsections ranged from.72 to.95.
The construct validity of the checklist was examined
within the context of assessing the reading textbooks of
both third and sixth grades. The results of using the
checklist in assessing the readability of those textbooks
were compared to the results of two other methods: Al-
Heeti's (1984) readability formula and cloze tests. For
each textbook, ten passages were randomly selected from
different sections of each book and were used for
calculating the readability of the book according to Al-
Heeti's readability formula. Similarly, four cloze tests
were constructed from different sections of each textbook
and administered to a total of 1,543 students. The
correlation coefficient between the readability section
of the checklist and Al-Heeti's readability formula
was.87. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between
the checklist and cloze tests was.78.
This study concludes that the checklist is a valid and
reliable instrument for assessing the readability and
overall quality of elementary reading textbooks. The
study also concludes that the checklist will be a
significant contribution to the improvement of Arabic
textbooks. It will be of general use to curriculum
developers, textbook authors, and classroom teachers.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING
THE READABILITY OF TEXT
Pub No: 9509225
Author: SINGH, JUDY
Degree: PHD
School: VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY
Date: 1994
Pages: 155
Adviser: RICHARDSON, JUDY S.
Source: DAI-A 55/11, p. 3462, May 1995
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535); HEALTH SCIENCES, EDUCATION
(0350)
Abstract: Readability formulas are often used for developing
reading materials and for determining the reading level
of written materials. However, research has indicated
that because readability formulas include only two of
several variables they are inaccurate as predictors of
reading level and ineffective as writing guides. In this
study the Readability Assessment Instrument (RAIN) was
developed to assess readability in terms of a number of
variables previously identified as contributing to
comprehension. Validation of the RAIN was conducted in
two phases. In Phase I, 30 brochures related to heart
disease, oncology, and AIDS were analyzed using the SMOG
readability formula and the RAIN. Results showed that on
the SMOG formula, 97% of the brochures were written at or
above the 9th-grade level. Analysis on the RAIN showed
that the brochures incorporated several variables
identified as facilitating comprehension but they were
not used to the extent necessary to ensure full
comprehension of the brochures. Brochures identified by
the SMOG to be at the same reading level varied in terms
of the variables incorporated in the RAIN, indicating
that the brochures were not equivalent in terms of
readability. In Phase II, two brochures were selected,
one on heart disease and one on cancer. The heart
brochure was written at the 8th-grade level and rated as
'very readable' on the RAIN. The cancer brochure was
written at the 9th-grade level and rated as 'extremely
difficult.' Twenty adults reading at or about the 8th-
grade level read the two brochures, rated them in terms
of their readability, and commented on the variables that
affected their comprehension of the brochures. Their
language orientation, and prior knowledge and interest in
heart disease and cancer was also assessed. Of the 20
subjects, 18 gained higher scores on the heart than on
the cancer brochure irrespective of their language
orientation, and prior knowledge and interest in these
two areas, as predicted by the RAIN. The subjects'
comments on the readability of the brochures were
consistent with the variables included in the RAIN. The
RAIN appears to provide a more valid measure of
readability than the SMOG.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: DISCOURSE COHERENCE AND READABILITY: A STUDY OF THE
EFFECTS OF COHERENCE MARKER DENSITY ON READING
COMPREHENSION.
Pub No: 7605163
Author: FERRY, CLIFFORD LLOYD
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF OREGON
Date: 1975
Pages: 127
Source: DAI-A 36/09, p. 5765, Mar 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: EFFECTS OF COLOR AND PRINT SIZE ON READABILITY
Pub No: 8412779
Author: JOHNSTON, RAYMOND L.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
Date: 1983
Pages: 93
Source: DAI-A 45/03, p. 796, Sep 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The need for easily read printed materials is very real
in the teaching profession. With the many choices of
paper color and types of print available, the teacher
must be able to make an intelligent choice concerning the
combinations of color and print. A review of literature
indicated that much work has been done with ink color and
light intensity's affect on reading. Literature also
indicated that researchers in readability and publishers
need to work together to produce more easily read
materials.
Purpose of the Study. The purpose of this study was to
ascertain readability for color and print combinations
presented. The background colors were blue and white and
the print types were standard 10 point pica and orator--
types and colors readily available to educators.
Research questions were: (1) To what extent does
changing combinations of type size of printed materials
from 10 point pica type to orator type and background
color from white to blue affect readability of printed
materials for adults--in this case, vocational
agriculture teachers? (2) To what extent does the opinion
of the respondents vary as to the difficulty of the ease
of reading of printed materials when combinations of 10
point pica type and orator type is used with either white
or blue background?
Procedures. The sample for the study included 192 of the
323 secondary vocational agriculture teachers of Missouri
attending the teachers conference held during the 1983
state FFA contests and convention.
The subjects were randomly selected for the four cells.
The cells contained subjects receiving test instruments
of: (1) white background with pica type; (2) white
background with orator type; (3) blue background with
pica type; and, (4) blue background with orator type. All
subjects received the same instructions for completing
the test instrument. In addition, all were in the same
room; therefore, light, noise and other factors were the
same for all participants. Upon completion of the test,
the participants were released.
Conclusions. Based on the results of the study, it was
concluded that: (1) The background color blue or white
does not affect preference or readability for this group
of subjects; (2) The type--standard 10 point pica or
orator type--does not affect preference or readability
for this group of subjects. Either of the types or
background color would be effective in presenting printed
materials to adult learners. Implications here are for
college level courses, GED programs for adults and
industry in its training programs.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: ESTIMATED READABILITY AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF TEXAS HISTORY
TEXTBOOKS, 1903-1992
Pub No: 1348335
Author: BROWN, GLENN WILLIAM
Degree: MED
School: LAMAR UNIVERSITY - BEAUMONT
Date: 1992
Pages: 107
Adviser: JOHNSON, AILEEN
Source: MAI 30/04, p. 961, Winter 1992
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION,
READING (0535); EDUCATION, SOCIAL SCIENCES (0534)
Abstract: Textbooks have been a controversial topic in Texas for
many years. However, textbooks are a component of the
public school curriculum which has not been as
extensively studied as have other parts of the
curriculum. Few studies have been done of the estimated
readability, size and composition of specific content
textbooks over multiple adoption periods.
The objective of the study was to determine how Texas
history textbooks have changed over the past ninety
years. Factors to be investigated were the estimated
readability of the textbooks, the number of pages of
text, and the number of pages of illustrations.
Readability estimates were compared between and among
adoption groups and significant changes in the levels of
estimated readability were observed among the textbooks.
A relationship between pages of illustration and pages of
text was observed, but no relationship appeared to exist
between the percentage of pages of illustration and the
estimated readability levels.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: ESTIMATION OF 'READABILITY' OF BOOKS READ BY PUBLIC
SCHOOL PUPILS
Author: SMITH, EDGAR A.
Degree: PHD
School: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1954
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: EXTENT OF AGREEMENT OF READING TESTS AND READABILITY
MEASURES
Pub No: 7327554
Author: BRADLEY, JOHN MICHAEL
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
Date: 1973
Pages: 406
Source: DAI-A 34/05, p. 2379, Nov 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE AS A READABILITY VARIABLE IN THE
STUDY OF THE SHORT STORY
Pub No: 7021339
Author: BABCOCK, NATALIE C.
Degree: EDD
School: OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1969
Pages: 95
Source: DAI-A 31/08, p. 3765, Feb 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: FORMATIVE EVALUATION OF THE COMPREHENSIBILITY OF WRITTEN
INSTRUCTION (READABILITY, COMMUNICATION, COMPOSITION,
STYLISTIC)
Pub No: 8609547
Author: MCLEAN, JAMES IVAN
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
Date: 1985
Pages: 357
Source: DAI-A 47/02, p. 484, Aug 1986
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: In this study, the relationships between changes made
during the development of written instruction and the
effectiveness of the materials when presented to learners
were examined. For this purpose, writers and judges were
asked to assess factors affecting the comprehensibility
of passages before and after revision. The predictive
validity of these assessments was then tested by
administering the materials to students.
The instrument for this study was formulated by
translating modern concepts of reading comprehension and
instructional development into guidelines for writers.
These guidelines were in the form of anchored rating
scales related to each of the following factors: (1)
familiarity of vocabulary, (2) sentence complexity, (3)
use of examples, metaphors, and analogies, (4) use of
illustrations, (5) use of other strategies which consider
the reader's knowledge, (6) brevity versus elaboration,
(7) variety, (8) statement of objectives, (9) provision
for student practice, (10) clarity of organization, (11)
clarity of references, and (12) the author's revision
strategy.
These scales were used by writer-subjects who rated one
of two original passages, revised it, and then rated the
revision. Judges then used the first 11 scales to rate
both the original and revised passages. The materials
were then administered to students, who took four-level
multiple-choice tests in both closed-book and open-book
conditions. Regression equations based upon aptitude,
content assessments, self-ratings of writers, and ratings
by judges predicted much of the variance in the student
scores. Thus, this study found strong predictive
relationships between the changes made during
instructional development and the students' success in
using the resulting materials.
However, this predictive relationship involves three
major qualifications. First, the optimum regression
equation was different for each level of meaning in the
student test and also different for the open-book versus
closed-book condition. Second, writers collectively
improved the two original passages only in the
presentation of word meanings. Third, this study
supported the need to test materials with actual
learners.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Fourth graders' literal and inferential reading
comprehension: Effects of readability and answer format
Pub No: 9975986
Author: Green, Laura Brueggeman;
Degree: PhD
School: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
Date: 2000
Pages: 65
Adviser: Carpenter, Robert L.
ISBN: 0-599-81716-X
Source: DAI-B 61/06, p. 3033, Dec 2000
Subject: HEALTH SCIENCES, SPEECH PATHOLOGY (0460); PSYCHOLOGY,
COGNITIVE (0633); EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)
Abstract: The goal of reading is to gain meaning from text.
Subsequently, reading comprehension skills become a much
greater focus in third or fourth grade as children begin
reading text to learn. A text's meaning is a combination
of the explicit, literal meanings of the sentences
themselves, as well as the inferential meanings that can
be uniquely generated by the reader. Inferential
comprehension is critical to reading success. Assessment
of inferential reading comprehension in the classroom is
often completed in the context of passage-reading tasks
(i.e. read a passage and answer questions that follow).
Many variables can influence and potentially confound
this type of assessment. The purpose of this study was to
examine the effects of two such variables, text
readability level and the use of different answer
formats, on fourth-grade readers' ability to gain literal
and inferential meaning during reading.
Sixty normally-achieving fourth graders participated in
the study. Tasks were comprised of passages and items
that varied as to readability level
(below-grade-level vs. grade-appropriate), and items that
varied as to answer format (multiple-
choice vs. short-answer), and question
type
(literal vs. inferential). Once the
participants completed all three tasks, the items were
scored and reorganized into eight separate subscales used
for comparison in this study.
A 3-factor repeated-measures analysis of variance was
used to examine effects of readability and answer format
on literal and inferential comprehension performance.
Participants performed consistently better at
below-grade-level readability levels
on both
literal and inferential comprehension and in both answer
formats. Moreover, there were differential effects of
answer format on literal comprehension performance at
different readability levels. On below-grade-
level literal subscales
, participant performance
on literal questions was significantly better in the
multiple-choice format; however, at a
grade-appropriate readability level ,
participant performance on literal questions was
significantly better in the short-answer
format. Answer format did not significantly affect
performance on inferential questions.
These results indicate that both readability and answer
format influence assessment of literal and inferential
comprehension performance, and should be taken into
account if accurate evaluation is to take place.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: GENERALIZABILITY OF 'READING MISCUE INVENTORY' SCORES
GENERATED BY AVERAGE READERS IN GRADE THREE ON BASAL-
READER FICTIONAL SELECTIONS OF COMPARABLE LENGTH AND
READABILITY LEVEL.
Pub No: 7811755
Author: WOLF, ANNE ELIZABETH
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON
Date: 1978
Pages: 263
Source: DAI-A 39/03, p. 1500, Sep 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS (0288)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Health education materials: Readability, usability, and
suitability
Pub No: 9937819
Author: Iseri, Chie;
Degree: EdD
School: PEPPERDINE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1999
Pages: 100
Adviser: Garcia, Cara
ISBN: 0-599-39099-9
Source: DAI-A 60/07, p. 2393, Jan 2000
Subject: EDUCATION, HEALTH (0680); HEALTH SCIENCES, NUTRITION
(0570)
Abstract: Health-education materials were examined to determine if
presentation in expository, conversational (matching oral
language), or mapped formats made those publications more
or less readable.
Twelve booklets that included four health-education
topics—asthma, blood pressure, diabetes,
nutrition—presented in three
formats—expository, conversational,
mapped—were selected to compare the
readability—the easiest, the middle, the hardest. A
rating sheet was developed and distributed to each of the
30 volunteer subjects, 15 neighbors and 15 health-care
professionals, who rated the readability of those
booklets. The SAM scoring sheet developed by Doak, Doak,
and Root was modified and applied to all the 12 booklets.
The SAM scores, the percent scores, and the Fry reading
grade level scores were compared to determine the
readability of health-education booklets.
The frequencies and percentages of the readability
ratings, for the three presentation formats, based on
responses of the neighbors and health-care professionals,
were summarized to answer the three research questions,
and were compared with the SAM scores in percentile and
Fry's grade level scores to draw conclusions.
The health-education materials presented in the mapped
format were found to be the easiest to read and
understand, the expository format was a distant second,
and the conversational format was a very close third to
the expository format. Findings on the SAM scores,
percent scores, and Fry's reading grade level scores
indicated that the mapped format is the most suitable and
easiest to read and understand; however, all of these
scores rated the conversational format as in the middle,
and the expository format as the least suitable and the
hardest to read and understand.
Conclusions drawn from the study were: health-education
booklets written in mapped format are the easiest to read
and understand for readers from diverse backgrounds,
experiences, and knowledge; booklets written in
expository format in general are the most difficult to
read and understand.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: IDENTIFICATION, SYNTHESIS AND TRANSLATION OF DESIGN
CONCEPTS AND SUBCONCEPTS INTO THE READABILITY LEVEL OF
UPPER ELEMENTARY STUDENTS
Pub No: 8325276
Author: JOHNSON, NEAL CONSTANTINE
Degree: DED
School: UNIVERSITY OF OREGON
Date: 1983
Pages: 461
Source: DAI-A 44/07, p. 2017, Jan 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, ART (0273)
Abstract: The purposes of this study were three-fold: (1) identify
and synthesize design concepts and subconcepts; (2)
translate some of these into the readability level of the
upper elementary student; and (3) construct a sample
lesson centered around their integration written at the
upper elementary student's readability level.
The study consisted of two integrated parts. In part I,
three areas of art education design literature were
examined to: (1) provide an overview of concepts
regarding the teaching of design; and (2) use the most
frequently promoted concepts to design a vocabulary
readable to upper elementary students and teachers with
an example of a lesson application.
The findings in part I were utilized in part II: (1)
identified design concepts and subconcepts embodied
western traditional and Gestalt psychology definitions of
design; (2) design concepts most frequently included were
used; (3) varied definitions of design concepts were
utilized to identify concepts for use in this study; (4)
design theories based on western tradition and Gestalt
psychology were applied to identify three types of
subconcepts; (5) suggestions for design activities
related to integration of design elements and principles
were employed to construct a sample lesson; and (6)
suggestions pertaining to why, when, how and what types
of design activities should be taught to children were
not used.
Part II consisted of procedures and criteria to identify,
synthesize and limit design concepts and subconcepts
included in the literature reviewed. The grade level
readability of this material was identified using the
readability formulas of Dale and Chall, Fry and Raygor.
According to these formulas, this material was beyond the
readability level of upper elementary students. It was
rewritten and translated into their readability level.
Definitions of art terms were placed into a glossary. A
sample lesson was written at the upper elementary
student's readability level.
This study has implications to those using the results.
If teachers and curriculum designers adapt these
procedures, upper elementary students may potentially
attain a better design knowledge, since more reading
material will be available. Novice art teachers should
gain a stronger knowledge of design, since concepts will
have been translated into terms they may better
understand.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: IMAGE READING AND IMAGE READABILITY EXPERIMENTS AMONGST
E.G.B. PUPILS
Author: MONGE MIGUEL, JUAN JOSE
Degree: LITTD
School: UNIVERSIDAD DE SALAMANCA (SPAIN)
Date: 1991
Pages: 787
ISBN: 84-87412-46-7
Languange: SPANISH
Source: DAI-C 53/03, p. 387, Fall 1992
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The subject matter of this thesis is the understanding of
images analysed under the twin set of variables which
affect this phenomenon: subject reader variables and
image variables. The general aim is to clarify the
effectiveness of illustrations in text books.
Hypothesis: (1) Sixth year E.G.B. students receive
quantatively differential information depending on
whether verbal, image or verbal-image codes are employed.
(2) There exist in the pupils themselves, psychic,
lectorial and experiential-cultural structures which
determine their understanding of the image. (3) We can
predict the understanding of images on the basis of the
structures of the previous hypothesis. (4) Image
readability is directly related to the message received
by the pupil, that is to say, there is a direct relation
between the message which is expected to be transmitted
by the characteristics of the images and that which the
pupil actually receives.
The forms of data-processing effected were those of
simple and interacting variance for the first hypothesis,
factorial analysis for the second and stepwise regression
for the third and fourth.
Through analysis and interpretation of the corresponding
results of the first three hypotheses, their estimation,
validation and proof of reliability of the cloze as a
test of the understanding of images were confirmed. As
regards the fourth hypothesis, there do exist some
indices of confirmation, an aspect which has been left
open but should be further tested with a larger sample.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: JUDGMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE APPLIED TO READABILITY
PREDICTION OF ARABIC READING MATERIAL
Pub No: 8411458
Author: AL-HEETI, KHALAF NASSAR
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO
Date: 1984
Pages: 175
Source: DAI-A 45/04, p. 1080, Oct 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Readability studies indicated problems associated with
the judgmental method used in developing readability
prediction equations. Some studies recommended further
research to refine the judgmental method and overcome
problems related to it.
The purpose of this study was to investigate Judgment
Analysis (JAN), a new statistical technique and research
methodology in the area of readability, to determine if
its application improved the judgmental method and solved
its problems. Accomplishment of this purpose would make a
significant contribution to areas of readability and
research methodology.
In the design of this study, the JAN technique was
applied to judgment scores of 15 Iraqi primary school
teachers who scored 60 passages selected from Arabic
primary reading textbooks used in the first through sixth
grades. Teachers scored each passage according to a 6-
point scale, following the Q-sort technique to produce
rectangular or uniform distribution. This means each
teacher assigned 10 passages to each point on the scale,
ranging from the 10 easiest passages, suitable for first
grade and scored 1, to the 10 most difficult passages,
suitable for sixth grade and scored 6. Teachers used a
Fused JAN to capture a systematic policy. The judgment
scores were used as the criterion variable, and the
scores of five linguistic variables were used as
predictor variables. A setwise regression analysis was
used to analyze the policies captured by JAN.
The following main findings and conclusions were
reported: (1) The JAN technique results showed that the
intrarater and interrater consistencies of the teachers
were statistically significant. (2) The low R('2) of
teacher policy may be attributed to use of a large number
of passages (60), along with linguistic variables with
narrow variability within and between each of them. (3)
None of the teachers adhered to all of the linguistic
variables in his judgments. (4) There was no evidence
that all of the teachers used a Fused JAN systematically
throughout their judgments. (5) Two honogeneous
judgmental policies were captured by the JAN technique.
(6) The JAN technique with setwise regression analysis
can be utilized to develop valid, reliable, and easily
calculated readability prediction equations.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: LEVELS OF READABILITY OF GENERAL SHOP TEXTBOOKS COMPARED
WITH THE READING ABILITIES OF NINTH-GRADE INDUSTRIAL ARTS
STUDENTS
Pub No: 6004047
Author: MILLER, WILBUR RANDOLPH
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
Date: 1960
Pages: 126
Source: DAI- 21/06, p. 1426, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: LEXICAL AND STRUCTURAL ITEMS AS PREDICTORS OF READABILITY
FOR HIGH AND LOW ABILITY READERS
Pub No: 7010200
Author: JEFFERSON, GEORGE LEE, JR.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
Date: 1969
Pages: 152
Source: DAI-A 30/12, p. 5287, Jun 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: LIVONIA, MICHIGAN: AN HISTORICAL STUDY WHOSE FINDINGS
HAVE BEEN USED IN THE PREPARATION OF A SOCIAL STUDIES
TEXTBOOK HAVING A MIDDLE ELEMENTARY GRADE READING LEVEL
AS DETERMINED BY THE SPACHE READABILITY FORMULA.
Pub No: 6405110
Author: SERVETTER, LEONARD NATHANIEL
Degree: EDD
School: WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1963
Pages: 142
Source: DAI- 25/01, p. 266, Dec 1966
Subject: EDUCATION, HISTORY OF (0520)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: PICTURE-FORMING WORDS AND READABILITY OF COLLEGE HISTORY
TESTS
Pub No: 0004601
Author: WHARTON, WILLIAM POLK
Degree: PHD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1952
Pages: 186
Source: DAI- 13/01, p. 65, Aug 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: PROCEDURAL YIELDS IN ASSESSING READABILITY OF SECONDARY
AND POST-SECONDARY CARPENTRY LITERATURE: CURRICULAR AND
OCCUPATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS
Pub No: 8112844
Author: THORNTON, L. JAY
Degree: PHD
School: THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1981
Pages: 164
Source: DAI-A 42/01, p. 189, Jul 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL (0747)
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the overall
usefulness of readability analysis procedural yields
regarding carpentry curricular and occupational
literature. That general purpose was divided into four
parts: (a) examination of mean as a measure of central
tendency; (b) determination of readability levels at
beginning and end of textbook concept units; (c)
determination of the distribution of readability level
throughout carpentry textbooks; (d) comparison of
readability levels of curricular and occupational
curricular literature.
Related literature identified several readability
formulas used to analyze vocational literature. Of these
formulas, the Flesch readability procedure was found to
be used most often.
Secondary and post-secondary teachers in central
Pennsylvania identified the literature used to teach
carpentry. Carpentry materials and tools manufacturers
identified the occupational carpentry literature. The
respective literature was obtained and analyzed according
to the requirements of each part of the study.
Analysis of data involved indexes of skew and kurtosis,
with accompanying means and standard deviations for part
one. Data analysis in part two included means, t values
for paired data, standard deviation, and homogeneity of
variances to compare readability levels at the beginning
and end of concept units. Part three data were achieved
by use of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation and
Fisher-Z tests of significance to determine the
relationship between readability and location within
carpentry textbooks. Data analysis in part four consisted
of means, standard deviations, homogeneity of variances,
and t values for independent data to compare curricular
and occupational readability levels.
The analyzed data supported these major conclusions: (1)
Mean is an inappropriate measure of central tendency for
reporting carpentry literature readability analysis
results. (2) No trend of differences exists between the
readability levels at the beginning and end of carpentry
curricular literature. (3) Carpentry textbooks do not
promote reading skill development by gradual increase of
readability level throughout the books. (4) Curricular
and occupational carpentry literature are not written at
consistently equal readability levels.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE 11TH AND 12TH GRADE EARTH
SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS USED IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS IN SAUDI
ARABIA
Pub No: 8229339
Author: ABANAMI, ABDULMOHSIN ABDULAZIZ
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF HOUSTON
Date: 1982
Pages: 155
Source: DAI-A 43/07, p. 2212, Jan 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The concept of readability has been given great attention
in the past 50 years. The notion that textbook reading
difficulty needs to be matched with student reading
ability has been emphasized by readability investigators.
Authorities in the field have ascertained that science
textbooks are often too difficult for students to read.
The literature has also indicated that science textbooks
present unique problems to readability.
The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage
of the eleventh and twelfth grade earth science students
who demonstrate a reading ability at the independent,
instructional, and frustrational reading levels, to
establish the cloze score intervals at each level, and to
determine the efficacy of using the cloze procedure to
measure reading comprehension in the Arabic language.
The study sample consisted of 157 eleventh and 152
twelfth grade students drawn from six randomly selected
high schools in the district of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A
multiple-choice comprehension and cloze tests constructed
from three selected passages taken from each of the
eleventh and twelfth grade earth science texts, were
employed in the study.
The obtained reliability coefficients of the
comprehension tests for the eleventh and twelfth grade
were .74 and .73 respectively. The comprehension test
results showed that four percent of the eleventh graders
tested were able to score at the independent, 43% at the
instructional, and 51% at the frustrational reading
level. Thirty three percent of the twelfth graders scored
at the instructional and 61% at the frustrational reading
level. The group means on the cloze tests differed
significantly (p < .001) at each reading level. The
calculated correlation coefficient between the
comprehension and cloze test scores for the eleventh
grade was .74 and for the twelfth grade was .77
indicating a significant relationship exists between the
two tests at each grade.
A small percentage of the eleventh grade students
comprehend their earth science textbook well. A modest
percentage of the eleventh and twelfth graders are able
to read the textbooks but they need additional
instruction. The majority of them seem to be encountering
reading difficulty and need additional reading
instruction in order to learn the material presented in
their earth science textbooks. The cloze test appears to
be an appropriate testing procedure for measuring
students' reading comprehension of earth science
textbooks in the Arabic language.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY: AN APPRAISAL OF RESEARCH AND APPLICATION
Author: CHALL, JEANNE S.
Degree: PHD
School: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1953
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND ACCESSORY REMARKS: FACTORS IN PROBLEM
SOLVING IN ARITHMETIC
Pub No: 6717547
Author: THOMPSON, ELTON NOEL
Degree: EDD
School: STANFORD UNIVERSITY
Date: 1967
Pages: 149
Source: DAI-A 28/07, p. 2464, Jan 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND COMPREHENSION OF WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS IN HOMOGENEOUS GROUPINGS OF
VOCATIONAL/TECHNICAL STUDENTS IN AN URBAN COMMUNITY
COLLEGE
Pub No: 7207429
Author: WATSON, PAUL GORDON
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
Date: 1971
Pages: 115
Source: DAI-A 32/08, p. 4336, Feb 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND COMPREHENSION: VARIABLES IN TEXT
ANALYSIS (PROPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS, KINTSCH)
Pub No: 8411004
Author: SONNENBLICK, CAROL ANNE
Degree: EDD
School: RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY - NEW
BRUNSWICK
Date: 1983
Pages: 194
Source: DAI-A 45/02, p. 479, Aug 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Problem. This study examined the effects of two sets of
readability variables on the comprehensibility of text,
those associated with traditional readability research,
and those derived from discourse analysis and based on
Kintsch's model of comprehension.
Procedure. Forty (40) passages from the reading
comprehension test of the Tests of General Educational
Development (GED) were analyzed to derive traditional
readability variables, measures of vocabulary and
syntactic complexity. Next, these passages were parsed
into their propositional structure and mapped into
coherence graphs, thus allowing the quantification of
discourse analytic variables. The dependent measures were
the average probabilities of GED candidates responding
correctly to the test items for each passage. Data was
analyzed using stepwise multiple regression procedures
with three sets of independent readability variables,
traditional (set 1), discourse derived (set 2) and
combined (sets 1 and 2). Each of these sets was analyzed
for the total, good and poor reader groups.
Findings. The major findings are: (1) Variables derived
from discourse analysis explained a larger proportion of
the variance in reader comprehension than did traditional
readability factors; (2) All analyses were less
successful (not statistically significant) for the poor
reader group than for the total or good reader samples,
regardless of the variables; (3) When old and new
variables were combined, number of inferences, long
sentences and a measure of proposition density were the
strongest predictors of reader performance in
comprehension for all readers, explaining approximately
51% of the variance for the total and good reader groups.
Conclusions. For this sample, out-of-school adults,
variables derived from discourse analysis were more
highly correlated with text difficulty than were the
traditional readability variables. When traditional and
discourse derived variables were combined, a larger
proportion of the variance in comprehension was explained
than when either set was correlated by itself.
Discourse analysis in its present form is such a
complicated technique that it is only suitable as a
research tool. Readability formulas are useful, but as
important, they are usable in the practical sense.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Readability and cultural sensitivity of patient education
materials that address disease prevention in African-
American adults
Pub No: 1407955
Author: Scott-Holmes, Veronica;
Degree: MSN
School: WILMINGTON COLLEGE DIVISION OF NURSING (DELAWARE)
Date: 2002
Pages: 59
Adviser: Sartrell, Barbara
ISBN: 0-493-55216-2
Source: MAI 40/05, p. 1220, Oct 2002
Subject: HEALTH SCIENCES, NURSING (0569); EDUCATION, HEALTH
(0680); BLACK STUDIES (0325); EDUCATION, BILINGUAL AND
MULTICULTURAL (0282)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the
readability levels and cultural sensitivity of patient
education materials that address prevention of diseases
in African-American adults who may have low literacy
skills. Five patient education materials (N = 5) were
collected from two inner city clinics. The Flesch-Kincaid
Readability formula was used to determine the readability
levels of the patient education materials. The Cultural
Sensitivity Assessment Tool (CSAT) was used to determine
the cultural sensitivity of the patient education
materials. The patient education materials were found to
have reading levels above the sixth-grade, which
indicated that African-Americans with low literacy skills
would have difficulty reading them. The CSAT indicated
that the patient education materials might not be
culturally sensitive for low literate African-Americans.
Nurses have a responsibility to create patient education
materials that are easily readable and address the needs
of African-Americans and other ethnic groups.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND PLOT CONTENT IN BASAL READERS AND
CHILDREN'S TRADE BOOKS
Pub No: 8222911
Author: WEBB, TAMSEN BANKS
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL
Date: 1982
Pages: 133
Source: DAI-A 43/05, p. 1455, Nov 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to detemine whether a
relationship exists betwen readability level and plot
content in selected trade and basal stories. Twenty
stories from trade books and twenty stories from basal
readers were analyzed for the frequency of plot element
occurrence using Vladimir Propp's morphology of plot
analysis as modified by Mary Lou White. The readability
levels of the 40 stories were assessed using Fry's
Readability Graph.
An analysis of variance comparing a proportioned cluster
analysis of plot element occurrence with the readability
data for all 40 stories indicated a relationship between
readability and plot content. The results of cross-
tabulation procedures and proportioned cluster analysis
of plot element occurrence indicated a relationship
between the plot contents of basal and trade stories.
There was a significant (p < .05) difference between the
means of the readability distributions for trade and
basal stories based on the results of a post-hoc t-test.
Four groups of core stories were identified that appear
to serve as a basis for the clustering of other stories
with similar plot profiles. The results of this study
support the psycholinguistic perspective that readability
encompasses both semantic and syntactic variables.
Implications of this study included the use by educators
and publishers of systems of plot analysis as
alternatives to readability formulas. Recommendations for
further research involved: (a) children's preferences
for trade books over basal stories despite the higher
readability of trade literature; (b) basal adaptations of
plot content in trade literature; (c) the relationship of
readability with plot sequence; (d) the use of core
stories in developing a new methodology of plot analysis.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND READING ABILITY AS PREDICTORS OF
COMPREHENSION AND LEARNING TIME IN A COMPUTER MANAGED
INSTRUCTIONAL SYSTEM.
Pub No: 7629236
Author: FISHBURNE, ROBERT PURDY, JR.
Degree: EDD
School: MEMPHIS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 68
Source: DAI-A 37/06, p. 3472, Dec 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND READING ABILITY: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A
DOMAIN REFERENCED MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENT
Author: STAPHORSIUS, GERRIT
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITEIT TWENTE (THE NETHERLANDS)
Date: 1994
Pages: 335
ISBN: 90-801795-2-3
Languange: DUTCH
Source: DAI-C 56/02, p. 317, Summer 1995
Subject: EDUCATION, TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS (0288)
Abstract: In the readability study the mean cloze score was
selected as a measure of readability. The predictors
which were used in this study were indicators of lexical
and syntactic complexity. The predictors included in the
equation resulting from the multiple regression analysis
were the average word length in letters, the percentage
of frequent words, the percentage of types in the first
250 words and the number of sentences per word (R =
0.85). Using the regression equation (readability
formula), it was possible to determine the relative
readability of texts though not the absolute readability.
The average cloze score of a text is not the average
score of comprehenders of the text. Therefore, a
supplementary criterion of readability is necessary. This
problem was dealt with using so-called text-tests (TT).
Text-tests are texts with open slots which can only be
filled in correctly by readers who understand both the
text proceeding and the text following the open slot. The
analysis of the TT texts was based on OPLM, a measurement
model which belongs to the class of item-response theory
models. This meant that there were now two readability
indices of the TT texts: (1) TT-ability necessary for a
score of 70% correct answers and (2) the predicted
average cloze score. Between the two indices r = 0.94 was
found. On the basis of this high correlation, it was
possible to convert reading ability as measured using the
TT items into a cloze score which corresponds with
'comprehension'. It was thus possible to express reading
ability and readability in the (predicted) average cloze
score. And this is the index which is denoted as the CRIE
(CITO Readability and Reading ability Index for
Elementary education). The reading ability level of
readers can be determined using the CRIE tests. These
tests consist of TT items. The reading ability levels
measured with these items can be expressed in the CRIE.
P-CRIE predicts the difficulty or readability of texts
and likewise expresses this in the CRIE. On the basis of
the results, it is possible to get a domain-oriented
picture of the level and the development of reading
ability in Dutch elementary education.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND THE COGNITIVE - CONCEPTUAL ASPECTS OF
READING: AN ANALYSIS OF THE RESEARCH AND LITERATURE
(1962-1982) AND SELECTED INTERPRETIVE MODELS
Pub No: 8327442
Author: WILLIAMS, NORMA J.
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
Date: 1983
Pages: 394
Source: DAI-A 44/08, p. 2427, Feb 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze and categorize
the literature and the relevant research over the past
twenty years (1962-1982) dealing with the cognitive-
conceptual aspects of readability and to summarize these
findings. In addition, the study provides some
interpretations of these findings and offers some
noticeable trends. A specific task of the study was the
development of graphic interpretive models for reading
based on cognitive growth and development, and the
conceptual aspects of reading as expressed by various
experts in the field.
An overwhelming majority of the research supported high
reading performance and language achievement levels as
being significantly associated with the cognitive-
conceptual level or style of a student. They are deemed
predictive relationships influencing the student's
efficient use of decision-making strategies and
activities in the reading comprehension process.
Knowledge of students' cognitive levels by educators,
psycholinguists and learning theorists has taken on new
significance as a prerequisite for reading instruction.
Investigators have placed considerable importance on the
cognitive identification and mapping of student strengths
and weaknesses as a tool for increasing the understanding
of reading problems and to provide alternatives in
instructional methods and materials. Textbook writers
need to go beyond the use of readability formulas in
analyzing instructional materials for factors (e.g.,
illustrations, graphic stimuli, format, inferences,
memorial demands, abstractness, interestingness,
organization, word order, critical reading factors,
logic, reader attitude and motivation) which may
contribute to increased reading comprehension. The
designing of texts to make them more suitable for
students at different levels of cognitive-conceptual
growth is a growing area of concern. The developed
interpretive models will provide direction for future
experimental research on cognitive styles. This would
provide a basis for improved academic achievement and for
the development of more effective instructional
materials.
This study includes 12 interpretive models developed by
the researcher based on the cognitive-conceptual aspect
of reading as suggested by the following authors:
Ausubel, Novak and Hanesian; Bransford; Campbell; Gray;
Hayes and Lotto; Lindsay and Norman; Miller and Kintsch;
Schank; Shirley; Strahan; and Wildman.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND TOP-LEVEL STRUCTURE: EFFECTS ON READING
COMPREHENSION.
Pub No: 7920502
Author: SWANSON, CHARLENE CLEMENTS
Degree: PHD
School: ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1979
Pages: 147
Source: DAI-A 40/03, p. 1370, Sep 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AND TWO THEORIES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR
Pub No: 6916794
Author: TRETIAK, RICHARD
Degree: EDD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1969
Pages: 97
Source: DAI-A 30/04, p. 1441, Oct 1969
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY: AN EXPERIMENT TO TEST THE IMPACT OF
SELECTED GRAPHIC DIMENSIONS.
Pub No: 1320270
Author: LOUGH, JOHN ROBERT
Degree: MA
School: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
Date: 1982
Pages: 72
Source: MAI 21/03, p. 272, Fall 1983
Subject: MASS COMMUNICATIONS (0708); EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AS A KEY FOR EVALUATING JUNIOR COLLEGE
FRESHMAN ENGLISH ANTHOLOGIES
Pub No: 6102526
Author: DOYLE, MARVYL
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Date: 1961
Pages: 274
Source: DAI- 22/01, p. 180, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY AS AN INTERACTIVE PROCESS: AN ANALYSIS OF
THE SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC EFFECTS ON TEXT OF CLOZE
ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH VARIATION IN THE STRUCTURE OF TEXT
AND IN READERS' KNOWLEDGE OF TEXT TOPIC
Pub No: 8321292
Author: BLACK, MARY CAROLINE
Degree: PHD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1983
Pages: 403
Source: DAI-A 44/05, p. 1397, Nov 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Although text readability has been thought to be
influenced by both text and reader characteristics, no
research has attempted to assess the relative influence
of these factors on readability and on processing
strategies employed by readers. The purposes of this
research were to determine the extent to which text
complexity and readers' knowledge of topic influenced
readability, and to determine how variation in these
factors and in the extent of text comprehensibility
affected the processing strategies employed by readers.
The first purpose was addressed by performing a four
(written level of text complexity determined according to
the Fry Readability Formula) by two (readers' knowledge
of topic) analysis of variance with repeated measures on
the last factor. Text complexity across topics was
controlled by writing passages on each topic at each
written level in which the part of speech of a word in
one passage was the same part of speech as the word in
the same ordinal position in the other passage. The
dependent variable was the number of cloze errors made on
cloze tests constructed on the passages.
The second purpose was addressed through analyses of
cloze errors for (1) syntactic agreement with the word
deleted, (2) semantic agreement with the word deleted,
and (3) the effects of erroneous cloze insertions on text
structure and meaning. One multivariate analysis of
variance was performed for each of the three scoring
analyses for each of the two topics. Discriminant
analyses were performed as post hoc tests.
The sample population consisted of 239 eighth grade
students. Each student completed one written level of the
cloze tests.
Inspection of the results indicated that (1) both written
level text complexity and knowledge of topic influence
readability, (2) readers appear to use heuristics to
assign elements to sentences, (3) text complexity,
comprehensibility, and knowledge of topic affect the
strategies readers employ, and (4) a more accurate
readability formula might be developed. Implications of
the findings for future research on readability,
teaching, model building, and the development of improved
methods for error analysis were discussed.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Readability assessing the complexity and
comprehensibility of written materials
Pub No: ML23146
Author: Walker, Robert;
Degree: MA
School: CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY (CANADA)
Date: 1985
ISBN: 0-315-23146-7
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY FORMULAS AND TEXTUALITY: AN HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE AND CRITIQUE
Pub No: 9034140
Author: WEBSTER, CAMERON DALE
Degree: PHD
School: BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1990
Pages: 193
Source: DAI-A 51/07, p. 2369, Jan 1991
Subject: LITERATURE, GENERAL (0401); EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND
LITERATURE (0279)
Abstract: The purpose of this dissertation has been to explore the
use of readability formulas, particularly their use in
technical and business communications, from an historical
perspective and to critique them on the basis of an
informal view of textuality.
This dissertation has been designed, then, as a synthesis
of criticisms of readability formulas and as an
exploration into what readability formulas have
consistently failed to tell us about written discourse.
This dissertation examines research in readability and
technical and business communications and I base my
critique on literary history and rhetoric.
Specifically, I argue that readability formulas, when
used as tools for producing or revising written
discourse, fail to take into consideration extratextual
concerns, without which texts are meaningless. The use of
readability formulas suggests that we access texts as if
all members of our audience share the same perspective.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY FORMULAS: THEIR APPLICATION TO PHILIPPINE
GRADES THREE-SIX SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7306121
Author: VALLE, NOLINA N.
Degree: PHD
School: PURDUE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1972
Pages: 200
Source: DAI-A 33/09, p. 4815, Mar 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY IN SCIENCE BOOKS FOR CHILDREN.
Pub No: 1303897
Author: ELLISON, MARILYN SUE
Degree: MS
School: CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, FULLERTON
Date: 1972
Pages: 55
Source: MAI 11/01, p. 25, Spring 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, SCIENCES (0714)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY LEVELS OF CORRESPONDENCE STUDY MATERIALS OF
THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD INSTITUTE.
Pub No: 7406984
Author: SILER, BILLY JOE
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
Date: 1974
Pages: 82
Source: DAI-A 34/09, p. 5496, Mar 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: Readability levels of emergency department's written
discharge instructions
Pub No: 1394132
Author: Hugo, Mary Alicia
Degree: MSN
School: SOUTHERN CONNECTICUT STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1999
Pages: 49
Adviser: Thompson, C.
ISBN: 0-599-27045-4
Source: MAI 37/05, p. 1435, Oct 1999
Subject: HEALTH SCIENCES, NURSING (0569); LANGUAGE, RHETORIC AND
COMPOSITION (0681); EDUCATION, HEALTH (0680)
Abstract: Changes in health care reimbursement policies have
affected patient care delivery in acute care settings.
One major consequence of these changes has been a
decrease in hospital admissions, which has affected
emergency departments. Patients, who would have been
admitted, are now discharged with standard written
instruction for care at home. Little time is allowed for
patient teaching and assessment of comprehension of these
instructions. At present little information is available
concerning reading levels of written hospital materials.
Given the low national literacy levels, written
instructions given to patients may be at a level too high
for comprehension. This descriptive study assessed
written discharge instructions for two common diagnoses,
collected from thirty-one Connecticut hospital emergency
departments. Comparisons were made to the national
statistics on reading and comprehension. It was found
that the average written discharge material was between
grade level 6.3 and 6.8, with approximately 25.6% written
above the average.

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY MEASUREMENT OF HEBREW PROSE
Author: NAHSHON, SAMUEL
Degree: PHD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1958
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY MEASUREMENTS: A REVIEW AND COMPARISONS
Author: DUNLAP, MARY C. C.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK
Date: 1954
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF COLLEGE GENERAL BIOLOGY TEXTBOOKS AND THE
PROBABLE EFFECT OF READABILITY ELEMENTS ON COMPREHENSION
Pub No: 0012703
Author: MAJOR, ALEXANDER GREGORY
Degree: PHD
School: SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1955
Pages: 117
Source: DAI- 15/09, p. 1573, May 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT PATIENT
EDUCATION LITERATURE
Pub No: 1379290
Author: COURSON, DAVID RALPH
Degree: MSN
School: DUQUESNE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF NURSING
Date: 1995
Pages: 37
Adviser: GABERSON, KATHLEEN B.
Source: MAI 34/05, p. 1916, Oct 1996
Subject: HEALTH SCIENCES, NURSING (0569); EDUCATION, HEALTH
(0680); HEALTH SCIENCES, MEDICINE AND SURGERY (0564)
Abstract: This study analyzed the readability of selected
preoperative and postoperative coronary artery bypass
graft (CABG) patient education literature distributed to
patients at 8 teaching hospitals in Western Pennsylvania
and Northeastern Ohio. The readability level of 16 pieces
of CABG patient education literature was assessed by
utilizing the SMOG formula. The readability level of the
printed patient education materials was then compared to
Chall's Literacy Groups and the estimated average reading
level of the adult population.
The mean SMOG reading level for this sample of CABG
patient education literature was 10.7. Results indicated
that all of the brochures analyzed in this study had a
readability level greater than the estimated average
reading level of the adult population and were designed
for persons who read at the marginally illiterate and
literate tiers of Chall's Literacy Groups.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY TEXTBOOK MATERIAL: A
CROSS-VALIDATION STUDY OF THE DALE-CHALL READABILITY
FORMULA.
Pub No: 6408930
Author: LEE, WAYNE DALE
Degree: EDD
School: OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1963
Pages: 112
Source: DAI- 25/02, p. 939, Jun 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF HIV/AIDS EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS TO
INTRAVENOUS AND OTHER DRUG USERS NOT CURRENTLY IN
TREATMENT (IMMUNE DEFICIENCY)
Pub No: 1360732
Author: MAILLOUX, STEPHEN LEONCE
Degree: MS
School: UNIVERSITY OF ALASKA ANCHORAGE
Date: 1994
Pages: 75
Adviser: JOHNSON, MARK E.
Source: MAI 33/05, p. 1589, Oct 1995
Subject: PSYCHOLOGY, CLINICAL (0622); EDUCATION, HEALTH (0680)
Abstract: This study was designed to determine whether drug users
not currently in treatment read at a level that allowed
them to comprehend the written materials available for
HIV/AIDS education/prevention. First, to assess the
consistency and comparability of various readability
software programs four software programs (Microsoft Word
for Windows, RightWriter, Grammatix IV, and
CorporateVoice) were used to evaluate HIV/AIDS printed
educational materials from five NIDA sites across the
United States and the Gettysburg Address. Statistical
analyses revealed that Microsoft Word for Windows is
significantly different from the other three programs and
that each of the three formulas assessed (Flesch-Kincaid,
Flesch Reading Ease, and Gunning Fog Index) were
significantly different from each other. Second, the
readability of 28 pieces of HIV/AIDS educational
materials from four different sites across the United
States were assessed for readability. Statistical
analysis revealed no significant differences across
sites, with an average readability grade equivalent level
of 7.8. Third, the data from Johnson, Fisher, Booth,
Jones, Rhodes, and Siegal (1993), who assessed the
reading ability of 414 drug users from the same five NIDA
sites using the Short version of the Woodcock Reading
Mastery Test-Revised (Woodcock, 1987) were compared with
the readability of the materials from the same sites.
Across all sites, the mean reading level of the subjects
was 5.5 grades, more than two grades lower than the
educational materials. The findings are discussed in
terms of individual NIDA sites, software programs, and
readability formulas.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF LANGUAGE ARTS TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7007599
Author: ROE, BETTY JOYCE DANIEL
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
Date: 1969
Pages: 162
Source: DAI-A 30/11, p. 4695, May 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF MASS MAILING WRITTEN MATERIAL PRODUCED AT
THE COUNTY LEVEL OF THE ALABAMA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION
SERVICE
Pub No: 9002153
Author: JOHNSON, EARL CRAWFORD
Degree: PHD
School: THE LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY AND AGRICULTURAL AND
MECHANICAL COL.
Date: 1989
Pages: 112
Adviser: VERMA, SATISH
Source: DAI-A 50/08, p. 2466, Feb 1990
Subject: EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL (0747); EDUCATION, ADULT AND
CONTINUING (0516); EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The objectives of this study were to assess the
readability of the mass mailing written material produced
at the county level of the Alabama Cooperative Extension
Service, and to determine the variance in readability
explained by selected variables.
A mail questionnaire to 100 randomly selected county
agents was used, with a 98% response rate. Readability of
agents' mass mailing written material was assessed using
the Fry Readability Graph. Descriptive statistics and
correlation coefficients were calculated. Stepwise
multiple regression at the.05 level was used to develop a
model which explained readability of material.
Findings indicated that respondents spent about six hours
weekly writing educational material for Extension
clientele. Forty-two percent of the respondents had taken
no college writing courses (beyond freshman English), and
another 45% had taken only one college writing course.
Adult audiences material (M = 11.2) was written at a
readability level about one and a half grades higher than
youth audiences material (M = 9.6). Agricultural material
(M = 11.2) was written at a readability level about a
grade higher than home economics material (M = 10.4).
Two-thirds of the agents writing for adult audiences
wrote material with an average readability of 10th grade
or higher, which is above the reading level of the
average adult in the U.S.
Three-fourths of the agents writing for youth audiences
wrote material with an average readability of 8th grade
or higher, while 75% of Alabama 4-H members are in grades
4-7.
Readability grade level of material tended to increase
with agents' higher educational attainment, and with
increase in agents' hours of inservice communication
training. Readability grade level tended to decrease as
agents spent more time writing for Extension clientele.
Males, who wrote only agricultural materials, tended to
write material at a higher readability level than
females, who wrote only home economics materials.
Recommendations are that agents be informed that
materials are being written at readability levels too
high for intended audiences, and that agents be provided
inservice training aimed at use of readability principles
and writing at grade levels appropriate for intended
audiences.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF PRIMARY-GRADE SPANISH READING BOOKS: A
CORRELATIONAL STUDY OF THE SPAULDING FORMULA AND THE FRY
GRAPH (ADAPTED)
Pub No: 8219611
Author: FOUNTAIN-CHAMBERS, JOANNA FRASER
Degree: PHD
School: TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 118
Source: DAI-A 43/04, p. 1097, Oct 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The Spaulding Readability Formula and the Gilliam, Pena,
and Mountain adaptation for Spanish of Fry's Graph were
applied to twenty-nine primary textbooks submitted for
adoption in bilingual programs in Texas.
The Children's Spanish Word List and a percentage
sentence factor estimate difficulty for the Spaulding
Formula; the Fry Graph uses a ratio of syllables to
sentences, after subtracting 67 from the syllable count
for Spanish. Fry grade level estimates were compared with
Spaulding scores using Thonis' grade-level equivalents.
The syllables, words, and sentences in each book were
counted as sequential one-hundred-word samples. Whole-
book and sampling estimates were then calculated with
each measure.
Spaulding estimates were significantly higher (p = .05)
than both publisher and adapted Fry estimates. There was
a significant differences between whole-book and
sampling-derived estimates using Spaulding's systematic
sampling, but not with the random-sample method used by
Fry. When the random-sample procedure was applied to
Spaulding data, there was no longer a significant
difference between estimates. A significant difference
between the ranks yielded by the two measures was found,
using a Spearman, rho ranks correlation.
Because the word-list approach used by Spaulding is more
highly predictive, and significant differences were
found, both the publisher and adapted Fry graph estimates
must be considered unreliable. The systematic sampling
method used by Spaulding, however, is also unreliable;
the random-sample method should be substituted for it,
for increased accuracy and speed.
The Spaulding and adapted Fry measures are not
interchangeable; only the Spaulding Formula is reliable
for estimating readability in Spanish books for children.
It is recommended that all textbooks submitted for
adoption in Spanish bilingual programs be subjected to
the Spaulding Readability Formula for proper grade-level
designation, and that a computer program be developed to
facilitate use of the formula by writers, publishers,
teachers, librarians, book reviewers, and textbook
selection committes.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF PROGRAMED TEXTBOOKS FOR INTERMEDIATE
GRADES, AS MEASURED BY THE DALE-CHALL FORMULA.
Pub No: 6514473
Author: WALKER, WILLIAM LEE
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
Date: 1965
Pages: 172
Source: DAI-A 27/06, p. 1565, Dec 1966
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF SOCIAL STUDIES MATERIAL WITH TECHNICAL
VOCABULARY AS COMPREHENDED BY MEXICAN-AMERICAN AND NON -
MEXICAN-AMERICAN STUDENTS.
Pub No: 7728454
Author: FREELAND, KENT EUGENE
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
Date: 1977
Pages: 250
Source: DAI-A 38/07, p. 3930, Jan 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADES FOUR,
FIVE, AND SIX, AS MEASURED BY THE DALE-CHALL FORMULA
Pub No: 5903500
Author: SLOAN, FRED A., JR
Degree: EDD
School: PEABODY COLLEGE FOR TEACHERS OF VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY
Date: 1959
Pages: 481
Source: DAI- 20/03, p. 928, Oct 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF SPANISH EDUCATIONAL MATERIAL
Pub No: 8309262
Author: TORRES, MARIA ESTHER
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT
Date: 1982
Pages: 147
Source: DAI-A 43/12, p. 3865, Jun 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between reading
difficulties presented by the instructional material and
the student reading comprehension level at the junior
high school level in Puerto Rico and addressed the
following question: What is the relationship between the
level of readability of Spanish instructional material as
measured by the Spaulding readability formula and reading
comprehension performance of students whose first
language is Spanish, as measured by a cloze test and a
standardized test of reading comprehension?
Two hypotheses, in the null form, were advanced to
accomplish the specific objectives sought by this study.
The hypotheses were tested by obtaining Partial
Correlation Coefficients adjusted for grade level between
Spaulding readability formula scores per passage and
cloze test scores of students, and between standardized
reading comprehension scores of a Spanish comprehension
test and cloze test scores on Spanish passages. The
significance level was set at the .05 level.
The subjects for the study were selected from the total
enrollment population of the junior high school level in
one school district in Puerto Rico. A stratified sampling
procedure to include 300 of the student population was
utilized. Three instruments were used for data collection
purposes: (1) the Spaulding readability formula
(Spaulding, 1956); (2) the Cloze test procedure (Taylor,
1953); and (3) the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills
(CTBS-Espanol, Level 3, 1978).
The data were analyzed using two different statistical
procedures: descriptive and inferential. The descriptive
procedure was used to analyze and present the findings
obtained from the Spaulding readability formula. The
inferential procedure was used to test the two hypotheses
using the partial correlation.
Results of this study revealed that: (1) Ninety percent
of the material used at the junior high school level in
Puerto Rico fell into the category of moderately
difficult and 130% fell into the category of difficult;
(2) there is a significant relationship between the level
of readability as measured by the Spaulding readability
formula and the performance of subjects in comprehension
as measured by the cloze test; and (3) there is a
significant correlation between the performance of
subjects in the reading comprehension test and the cloze
test.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READABILITY OF VOCATIONAL HORTICULTURE INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS
Pub No: 8129116
Author: WELCH, ANTOINETTE WOJCIAK
Degree: PHD
School: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1981
Pages: 187
Source: DAI-A 42/07, p. 2978, Jan 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, AGRICULTURAL (0517)
Abstract: The major purpose of the study was to gather base data
concerning the readability of instructional materials
used in Ohio vocational horticulture programs. Other
purposes of the study were to describe the relationship
between readability scores of materials and the following
variables: frequency of use of materials, experience of
teachers selecting the materials, teacher estimates of
readability of the materials, and performance on
standardized achievement tests of students using the
materials.
One horticulture teacher at each of the 40 schools
participating in the 1981 Ohio Horticulture Achievement
Testing program was randomly selected and sent a
questionnaire developed by the investigator. Eighty-eight
percent of the teachers contacted responded to the
questionnaire. Responses were tabulated, and readability
of materials listed was predicted using the Dale-Chall
Readability Formula. Correlation coefficients were used
to analyze relationships between readability scores of
instructional materials and the other variables.
The findings revealed that teachers were using a wide
variety of printed materials in the classroom. A total of
115 different items was listed by the 35 respondents. The
majority of materials was written at a level which
matched student grade level. However, scores on statewide
tests indicated that vocational horticulture students
were below average in ability. These scores led to the
assumption that students were also reading at a level
below grade level placements. It was concluded that the
majority of materials was too difficult in terms of
reading difficulty for the majority of students using
them.
There was no statistically significant relationship
between the readability of materials and the frequency
with which those materials were listed by teachers.
Similarly, no significant relationship was found betwen
readability of materials listed and teacher estimates of
this readability, or readability of materials and student
achievement on standardized tests.
Analysis of the 23 materials listed most frequently by
teachers indicated that technical terms and other
difficult words constituted from 16 to 29 percent of the
total sample passages. A list of difficult horticultural
terms was made to facilitate instruction and further
study in the area of technical vocabulary.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READING ABILITIES OF COLLEGE DRAFTING STUDENTS COMPARED
WITH READABILITY OF DRAFTING TEXTBOOKS AND WITH
INFORMATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT IN DRAFTING
Pub No: 6206396
Author: BROWNRIGG, JERRY ROY
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
Date: 1962
Pages: 220
Source: DAI- 23/07, p. 2432, Dec 1969
Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READING ABILITIES OF COLLEGE SENIOR INDUSTRIAL ARTS
MAJORS WITH EMPHASIS IN POWER MECHANICS COMPARED WITH
READABILITY OF POWER MECHANICS TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7616297
Author: ROSE, PHILLIP ALLEN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO
Date: 1976
Pages: 202
Source: DAI-A 37/01, p. 160, Jul 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, INDUSTRIAL (0521)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READING ABILITIES OF VOCATIONAL TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL
EDUCATION STUDENTS IN GRANITE SCHOOL DISTRICT RELATIVE TO
READABILITY LEVEL OF TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7027010
Author: MCKELL, WILLIAM ELLSWORTH
Degree: EDD
School: UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1970
Pages: 138
Source: DAI-A 31/07, p. 3438, Jan 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL (0747)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READING ACHIEVEMENT AND READABILITY OF JOB-ORIENTED
WRITTEN MATERIALS IN RELATION TO JOB PERFORMANCE
Pub No: 8010475
Author: KEITH, JEANNINE B.
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO
Date: 1979
Pages: 100
Source: DAI-A 40/11, p. 5805, May 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: READING, READABILITY, AND THE ESL READER
Pub No: 8424607
Author: HAMSIK, MARIE JACQUELINE
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1984
Pages: 89
Source: DAI-A 45/08, p. 2464, Feb 1985
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: This study reports the results of research to determine
whether readability formulas developed for the measuring
of reading difficulty for native English readers are
applicable to the measuring of readability for English as
a second language learners. The specific purpose of this
study was to determine if four widely used readability
formulas (the Flesch formula, the Dale-Chall formula, the
Fry Graph, and the Lorge formula) measured reading
difficulty for ESL students enrolled in intensive English
centers in the United States in preparation for academic
work.
The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient was used
to measure the correlation between the cloze test results
of ESL students on a series of passages known as the
Miller-Coleman Readability Scale and the readability
formula results of those same passages. The findings were
presented in four parts: (a) the cloze difficulty index
and standard deviation of the reading passages based on
results of the cloze tests; (b) the difficulty index of
the same passages using the four different readability
formulas; (c) the relationship between the cloze
difficulty index and the difficulty index of each
readability formula; and (d) a method to enable teachers
to match a student to appropriate reading material given
a known TOEFL score and a known readability level for a
passage or text.
From analysis of the data, it was determined that a
correlation did exist between the rank orders of the
passages as measured by the cloze scores of the ESL
students and by the readability formulas, and that this
correlation was meaningful.
According to the data of the sample, it now seems
possible to state that the four readability formulas and
graphs used in this study do measure readability of ESL
students and that they can be used to select material
appropriate to the reading level of ESL students.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: RELATIONSHIP OF READING ABILITY OF REMEDIAL TRACK
UNIVERSITY FRESHMEN TO TEXT READABILITY AND INSTRUCTIONAL
METHODOLOGY.
Pub No: 7527249
Author: CHERNEY, ELAINE ETHEL
Degree: PHD
School: MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1975
Pages: 150
Source: DAI-A 36/06, p. 3432, Dec 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE READABILITY LEVELS OF SELECTED
TEXTBOOKS, CLOZE PROCEDURES, AND THE READING ACHIEVEMENT
OF SIXTH-GRADE STUDENTS.
Pub No: 8000004
Author: DROBY, DONNA MARIE
Degree: EDD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1979
Pages: 138
Source: DAI-A 40/07, p. 3760, Jan 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: REVISING TEXT TO IMPROVE LEARNING: METHODS BASED ON TEXT
PROCESSING MODELS, EXPERTISE, AND READABILITY FORMULAS
Pub No: 9018338
Author: GULGOZ, SAMI
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
Date: 1989
Pages: 186
Adviser: BRITTON, BRUCE K.
Source: DAI-B 51/03, p. 1527, Sep 1990
Subject: PSYCHOLOGY, EXPERIMENTAL (0623); EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL
PSYCHOLOGY (0525)
Abstract: Four versions of a history text were tested for recall
and recognition. The Original Version was a 1034 word
section from a history textbook for undergraduate ROTC
students. The Principled Version was created by
systematic application of principles used in the analyses
of the text done by using the Kintsch and vanDijk model
and the given-new strategy. The purpose of these
modifications was to eliminate the call for the readers
to make inferences. The Expert Version was constructed by
an expert who combined his expertise with the results of
the analyses. The expert used the principles along with
other techniques which he thought would improve retention
of information. The Readability Version was created to
rule out the interpretation that the success of the
Expert Version was a consequence of changes in word
length and sentence length. It was created by reducing
the length of words and sentences so that the readability
level of this version was equal to that of the Expert
Version.
Three experiments were conducted. Experiments 1 and 2
were preliminary studies. In Experiment 1, the
superiority of the Expert Version over the Original text
was established. In Experiment 2, the inference questions
(testing availability of particular inferences to
readers) were pretested. In Experiment 3, all four
versions of the text (Original, Principled, Expert, and
Readability) were tested for recall and recognition. The
results showed that the Principled and the Expert
Versions were recalled better than the Original Version.
In recognition, only the Expert Version was better than
the Original. The Readability Version was not higher than
the Original in any condition. These results confirmed
the hypotheses that the Principled Version would improve
the retrieval of information while the Expert Version
would improve both the retrieval and the encoding of
information. The higher scores by the Principled Version
readers on the inference questions supported the
assumption that more information was recalled by readers
of this version because the inferences were provided in
text. The readers of the Principled Version also had
faster reading rates, perhaps because they did not need
to use extra time for making inferences.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: SAMPLE FREQUENCY MODIFICATIONS AND COMPARATIVE
READABILITY OF FOUR READABILITY FORMULAS AS APPLIED TO
SELECTED TEXTBOOKS ON THE TEACHING OF READING.
Pub No: 7918451
Author: GROVE, MARTHA JUDIN
Degree: PHD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1979
Pages: 148
Source: DAI-A 40/03, p. 1377, Sep 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: SCIENCE FICTION IN ELEMENTARY SCIENCE EDUCATION: A
CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE QUANTITY AND VALIDITY OF
SCIENTIFIC REFERENTS IN, AND THE READABILITY OF, SELECTED
SCIENCE FICTION LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN PUBLISHED BETWEEN
1940-1959 AND 1960-1980
Pub No: 8311523
Author: ADAIR, SUSAN ANDERSON
Degree: EDD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1983
Pages: 186
Source: DAI-A 44/01, p. 68, Jul 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)
Abstract: Science fiction is a popular literary genre with children
because it portrays an infinite variety of possible
futuristic images effected by the impact of science and
technology on human affairs. The purpose of this study
was to explore use of science fiction literature to teach
science in elementary science programs.
Usng content analysis techniques, three characteristics
of this literature were considered as hypotheses: (1)
the quantity of scientific terms; (2) the validity of
scientific concepts; and (3) the readability levels of
these books. Three characteristics of science fiction
authors were also considered in research questions. These
characteristics were: (1) the author's background in
science; (2) the time period in which he wrote; and (3)
the span of time in which he wrote. A random sample of 62
children's science fiction books was collected and
analyzed, representing books published before and after
the launching of Sputnik.
A list and frequency count of scientific terms were
recorded, and a value of terms per page was calculated
for each book. A sample of 216 science concepts was drawn
from the 62 books and given to a panel of science
educators. This five-member panel rated each concept as
accurate or inaccurate. An accuracy proportion was
calculated for each book. Using a modification of the Fry
Readability Graph procedure, readability levels were
ascertained for each book. Values were expressed as grade
levels.
Three null hypotheses and five research questions were
tested using appropriate nonparametric statistical tests.
Results of the analyses of the data showed that there
were significantly more scientific terms in books from
the pre-Sputnik period. There was no significant
difference in the validity of scientific concepts from
one time period to the other. Finally, there was no
significant difference in the readability levels of books
from one time period to the other.
Classroom teachers may choose to use science fiction
books appropriate to their science programs with the
knowledge that the validity of the science and the
readability levels have not changed significantly from
1940 to 1980. When teachers are concerned with the
quantity of scientific terms, they should be aware of the
differences between pre-Sputnik and post-Sputnik books.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: SELECTED WORKS OF LITERATURE AND READABILITY
Pub No: 7005237
Author: DAVIS, CHARLES ERNEST
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
Date: 1969
Pages: 170
Source: DAI-A 30/09, p. 3855, Mar 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: SENTENCE STRUCTURE AND READABILITY: THE INFLUENCE OF
FREQUENCY-BASED EXPECTANCIES OF SYNTACTIC STRUCTURE ON
THE COMPREHENSIBILITY OF TEXT.
Pub No: 7800419
Author: SELDEN, RAMSAY WILLIAM
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA
Date: 1977
Pages: 253
Source: DAI-A 38/09, p. 5308, Mar 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS AMONG LOUISIANA SECONDARY
PUBLIC SCHOOL BIOLOGY CLASSES: READABILITY OF BIOLOGY
TEXTBOOKS, GENERAL READING ABILITY, AND NATURAL SCIENCE
READING ABILITY.
Pub No: 7820609
Author: MIDDLETON, JOHN RANDOLPH
Degree: EDD
School: NORTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA
Date: 1978
Pages: 109
Source: DAI-A 39/05, p. 2858, Nov 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: SOME EFFECTS OF ELEMENTARY SCIENCE TEXTBOOK READABILITY
LEVELS ON SCIENCE ACHIEVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY STUDENTS WITH
LOW, AVERAGE, AND HIGH READING ABILITIES
Pub No: 8215379
Author: FIELD, MAURICE HOUSTON
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE
Date: 1982
Pages: 142
Source: DAI-A 43/02, p. 413, Aug 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, SCIENCES (0714)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate some of the
effects of elementary science textbook readability levels
on science achievement of elementary school students with
low, average, and high reading abilities as measured by
the Metropolitan Achievement Tests: Science.
The total reading achievement score obtained on the
Metropolitan Achievement Tests: Elementary Form F was
used to subdivide 111 students into three reading ability
groups. The three groups were found to be significantly
different when compared on total reading achievement
scores and later were found to be significantly different
when compared on science achievement scores obtained from
the Metropolitan Achievement Tests: Intermediate Form G
administered in April 1980. The gains in total reading
achievement were not significantly different from gains
in science achievement for any of the three reading
ability groups. Gains were calculated from scores on the
Metropolitan Achievement Tests: Intermediate Forms F and
G administered in October 1978 and April 1980
respectively.
Investigation of the relationship between ability to read
the Metropolitan Achievement Tests: Intermediate Form G
and scores above 6.7 on science achievement indicated
that students who scored above 6.0 on total reading
achievement tended to score above 6.7 on science
achievement. Study of the relationship between ability to
read the sixth grade science textbook and scores above
6.7 on science achievement indicated that students who
scored above 7.0 on total reading achievement tended to
score above 6.7 on science achievement. Students who
scored below 7.0 on total reading achievement had an
equal opportunity of scoring above or below 6.7 on
science achievement.
A review of the findings led to the following
conclusions: (1) Science achievement as measured by the
Metropolitan Achievement Tests was affected by total
reading achievement. (2) Gains in science achievement
scores and total reading achievement scores tended to
progress concurrently. (3) Science achievement scores
were adversely affected when students responded to an
achievement test with an estimated readability level that
exceeded the total reading achievement level of the
individual student. (4) Science achievement scores were
adversely affected when students studied a basal
elementary school textbook which had an estimated
readability level which exceeded the total reading
achievement level of the individual student.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: STRATEGIES FOR COMPREHENSION OF EXTENDED AND HOLISTIC
METAPHOR/ANALOGIES IN SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS BY FOURTH-GRADE
STUDENTS (INQUIRY, READABILITY, TRENDS)
Pub No: 8508119
Author: LIPSCHITZ, CEIL
Degree: PHD
School: FORDHAM UNIVERSITY
Date: 1985
Pages: 265
Source: DAI-A 46/03, p. 661, Sep 1985
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Previous research on science textbooks and development of
science concepts indicate that fourth-grade students have
difficulty with comprehension of metaphorical sentences
for science information. This study, in order to reduce
misconceptions and promote comprehension, has presented a
set of strategies for analyzing and interpreting
metaphor/analogies in written text.
Sternberg's (1977, 1978) componential theory has been
operationalized to test for comprehension of science
information with fourth-grade students. The 15 null
hypotheses compared cognitive strategies (verbal,
exemplar, pictorial) with the structural form of
metaphor/analogies (extended, holistic). The dependent
variables were scores on the three reasoning tasks in
stages (identification, inference, and synthesis).
Three distinct groups made up the random sample: the
unskilled of 30 fourth-grade students with a mean reading
score of approximately 4.16, the average of 30 fourth-
grade students with a mean reading score of approximately
5.52, and the proficient of 30 fourth-grade students with
a mean reading score of approximately 7.42.
Analysis of variance tested 15 null hypotheses for the
relationship between scores on the CAT and scores on the
MST for each group. As a result of Eta, six null
hypotheses were partially retained. Correlations for both
structural forms of the MST indicated a nonlinear or
curvilinear relationship between cognitive strategies for
science information and restructured metaphorical
sentences in the science text.
Mean reading scores on both structural forms of the MST
were highest for the proficient and lowest for the
unskilled reading ability group.
Examination of the incorrect responses indicated fewer
errors occurring during the extended structural task
where the additional clause or cue was provided to
facilitate the reasoning process of fourth-grade students
for comprehension of the science information. Since
reading and strategies vary from student to student, a
curved line best fitted the trend of the data in this
investigation. Two major educational implications
indicated that: (1) Restructuring the metaphorical
sentence and training in strategy skills should improve
comprehension skills for science information; (2)
Reevaluation of science materials should help identify
the kinds of reasoning strategies and inquiry process
skills needed for successfully completing
metaphor/analogies and related science tasks.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: STUDENT LIKING FOR TEXTBOOKS IN RELATION TO THEIR
READABILITY
Pub No: 0024188
Author: ROCKOWITZ, MURRAY
Degree: PHD
School: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
Date: 1957
Pages: 118
Source: DAI- 18/02, p. 502, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: STUDENT PERFORMANCES AND READABILITY LEVELS ON THE
'STANFORD ACHIEVEMENT TEST' AND THE 'MICHIGAN EDUCATIONAL
ASSESSMENT PROGRAM TEST'
Pub No: 8025775
Author: STATEN, TERESSA V.
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Date: 1980
Pages: 92
Source: DAI-A 41/05, p. 1931, Nov 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: General Purpose and Specific Questions. The purpose of
the study was to compare readability levels and selected
student performance data on the fourth grade Michigan
Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) criterion-
referenced test items and third grade Stanford
Achievement Test norm-referenced items. The items
selected from both tests were those which measure reading
comprehension. Data were analyzed from the performance on
both tests of all fourth grade students from Lansing
Public School District, Lansing, Michigan, who in May,
1978, took Level III (third grade), Form A, Stanford
Achievement Test in reading and also took the 1978-79
fourth grade MEAP test in reading.
Three specific questions were addressed: (1) How do
students who are categorized into five different rank-
order levels as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test
of Reading Comprehension, perform on the Michigan
Educational Assessment Program Reading Test items? (2)
What is the correlation between student performance on
the Michigan Educational Assessment Program test items
that measure reading comprehension and performance of
students on the Stanford Achievement Test items that
measure reading comprehension? (3) How does the mean
readability level of test items that measure reading
comprehension on the criterion-referenced Michigan
Educational Assessment Program test compare to the mean
readability level of test items that measure reading
comprehension on the norm-referenced Stanford Achievement
Test?
Procedures for Data Analysis. The data were analyzed
using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences of the
Lansing School District. The data analyzed were taken
from performance scores of 1835 fourth grade students who
were categorized into five rank-order group levels.
The Pearson product-moment correlation formula was
computed to determine relationships between performances
of students. The Fry readability formula was used to
determine and compare the mean readability levels of the
Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) and the Michigan
Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) test items.
Specific Findings. (1) High performing students score
high on both the SAT and MEAP reading comprehension test
items. (2) Low performing students had higher mean
performances on the MEAP reading comprehension test items
than on the SAT reading comprehension items. (3) There is
a significant correlation between student performance on
SAT reading comprehension items and MEAP test reading
comprehension items. (4) The readability levels of the
selected items compared in this study are near enough the
same level to require about the same reading ability.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: STUDENT READING LEVELS AND THE READABILITY OF SELECTED
TEXTBOOKS AS PREDICTORS OF ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT.
Pub No: 8001041
Author: RICE, LOUISE ALLEN
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
Date: 1979
Pages: 119
Source: DAI-A 40/07, p. 3918, Jan 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: SYNTACTIC COMPLEXITY, VOCABULARY DIFFICULTY AND
READABILITY FOR DEAF COLLEGE STUDENTS
Pub No: 8023921
Author: DRURY, ALINDA MARIE
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER
Date: 1980
Pages: 125
Source: DAI-A 41/05, p. 2056, Nov 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, SPECIAL (0529)
Abstract: Deaf students, even at the post-secondary level, do not
achieve reading skills comparable to their hearing peers.
Assessment of their reading ability has traditionally
been accomplished with the use of reading tests
standardized on populations of hearing students. The
current study was motivated by the need for a technique
which is more diagnostic in nature and for use
specifically with hearing-impaired populations. The
construction of such a test, however, depends on the
identification of factors that affect readability for
deaf students. Two factors which have been shown to
affect readability for hearing readers are syntax and
vocabulary. While there is some evidence that these
factors affect readability for deaf students, there is no
research to date investigating their simultaneous
effects. Psycholinguistic theory led the author to
hypothesize a syntax by vocabulary interaction in
addition to significant main effects for syntax and
vocabulary individually.
The research reported here investigates the effects of
two levels of both syntactic complexity and vocabulary
difficulty and their interaction on deaf college
students' reading performance. Four versions of a passage
entitled, 'The American Family,' were written so that
each passage represented one of two levels of both
syntactic complexity and vocabulary difficulty. Each
passage was approximately 400 words long. Simple syntax
was defined as the use of simple, active, declarative
sentences with simple conjunction. Complex syntax
incorporated negation, passives, subordinate clauses, and
avoided simple sentences. 27 words (approximately 25% of
the total number of content words) were identified as
appropriate for variation. Easy vocabulary items were
words generally at the fourth grade level for hearing
students (according to The Living Word Vocabulary, Dale &
O'Rourke, 1976). Difficult vocabulary items were synonyms
for the easy words, but generally at the eighth grade
level. Reading levels of the passages (using the Dale-
Chall formula) were estimated to be within the average
reading ability of the subjects. A standard cloze
procedure in which every seventh word was deleted was
applied to each passage for a total of 50 deletions per
passage.
A total of 120 profoundly deaf (minimum loss of 92 dB in
the better ear) students equally representing three
levels of English ability were selected from those
attending the National Technical Institute for the Deaf,
a post-secondary program. Subjects each read one of the
four passages in its entirety and then completed the
cloze task for that same passage. Cloze tests were scored
for verbatim responses. Errors were assigned to one of
six categories: (1) Synonymous; (2) Simple morphological
error; (3) Syntactically acceptable, semantically
unacceptable; (4) Semantically acceptable, syntactically
unacceptable; (5) Unacceptable; (6) No response. A 3
(English level) x 2 (syntax level) x 2 (vocabulary level)
ANOVA was computed for verbatim responses. A MANOVA was
computed for frequencies of errors by categories.
Results indicate significant main effects for English,
syntax, and vocabulary in the expected directions. There
were no significant interactions. The lack of interaction
is discussed in terms of two possible explanations: An
interaction does not exist for these students because of
how they learn English; and the cloze may be insensitive
to such an interaction.
In general, for errors, the simpler the passage, and the
better the English skills, the more grammatically
acceptable the errors.
Implications for the selection and development of reading
materials and diagnostic testing are discussed.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: TEACHERS' PREDICTIONS OF STUDENTS' PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF
CONTENT INFORMATION AS A PREDICTOR OF TEXTBOOK
READABILITY (SCHEMA, INFORMATION UNITS, CLOZE)
Pub No: 8701409
Author: SILSBY, JOSEPH BENTON
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
Date: 1986
Pages: 347
Source: DAI-A 47/10, p. 3721, Apr 1987
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Purpose. This study was designed to examine and describe
the criteria which college teachers use in the selection
of textbooks and to determine the accuracy of college
teachers' predictions of students' prior knowledge of
content information. In addition, this study was designed
to inquire into the relative effectiveness of traditional
readability formulas, the cloze procedure, and teacher
judgement as criteria for use in textbook selection.
Procedure. A survey was sent to all appropriate faculty
members at a small, private college in order to ascertain
their textbook selection criteria. Six faculty members
from related content areas were then selected and asked
to complete a cloze test and to predict students' prior
knowledge in relation to an excerpt from a textbook. Six
college freshmen were asked to complete the same cloze
test and then to orally preview, silently read and
produce an oral retelling of the textbook selection. The
text selection and the students' retellings were
subsequently transformed into information units. The
students were also asked to code the text selection for
information they either knew prior to reading it, learned
from reading it, or did not understand during the reading
of it. The text selection was then graded using five
readability formulas.
Results and Conclusions. (1) College teachers do not
believe that 'students' prior knowledge of content' is an
important factor in the selection of textbooks even
though students may find a text extremely difficult to
read without appropriate prior knowledge of the content.
(2) Teachers' predictions of what students knew prior to
reading the text selection, what they would learn when
reading it, and what they would not understand, were very
accurate when compared to the students' overall codings
for the same information. (3) The results of the cloze
tests and the students' retelling scores revealed that
they were ill prepared to read the text selection, even
though the teachers felt that the selection's difficulty
was only slightly above average. (4) The readability
formula results revealed a lack of agreement and further
demonstrated the literature's findings that the use of
readability formulas cannot match texts with students.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: TENTH GRADE STUDENTS' READING COMPREHENSION OF
OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION MATERIALS AND READABILITY
ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION BRIEFS.
Pub No: 1319593
Author: LE GRUE, ROBERT RICHARD
Degree: MS
School: CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH
Date: 1982
Pages: 191
Source: MAI 21/02, p. 140, Summer 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING (0519)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: TEXTBOOK READABILITY AND OTHER FACTORS WHICH COULD
INFLUENCE THE SUCCESS OF THE EIGHTH-GRADE, EARTH SCIENCE
COURSE IN THE TEXAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS.
Pub No: 6701529
Author: KLINE, LOREN E., JR
Degree: PHD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1966
Pages: 277
Source: DAI-A 27/08, p. 2283, Feb 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: TEXTBOOK READABILITY AND THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF THE
DALE-CHALL, COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT PROGRAM, AND CLOZE
Pub No: 8711748
Author: WAIT, SHIRLEEN SASSER
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1987
Pages: 132
Source: DAI-A 48/02, p. 353, Aug 1987
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purposes of this investigation were to: (1)
Determine the differences, if any, in fourth, fifth and
sixth grade students' mean scores on cloze tests in their
science, English and social studies textbooks. (2)
Determine the relationship, if any, between fourth,
fifth, and sixth grade students' Comprehensive Assessment
Program (CAP) normal curve equivalent total reading
scores and their mean scores on cloze tests constructed
from science, English, and social studies textbooks.
To determine the normal curve equivalent scores, the
total reading scores of the Comprehensive Assessment
Program, Form B were used. Textbook readability levels
were determined by the Dale-Chall readability formula.
The textbooks were on the Florida State adopted list.
Cloze test scores were determined from examiner
constructed cloze tests of 250-275 word samples taken
from 4th, 5th, and 6th grade science, English, and social
studies textbooks. Tests were scored on the number of
word replacements that matched the original text. A score
of 40% was considered instructional level.
The subjects included all 4th, 5th, and 6th grade
students enrolled in the FSU Developmental Research
School. Both cloze and CAP tests were administered by the
classroom teachers during regular class time. Each
hypothesis was tested at the .05 alpha level.
The relative reading difficulty of fourth, fifth, and
sixth grade science, English, and social studies
textbooks was determined by a repeated measures analysis
of variance. Significant differences existed at grades
four and five but not at grade six. Social Studies was
the most difficult textbook at grades 4 and 5. Over half
of the students were at their frustration level in all
three textbooks with the exception of fifth grade
science.
The relationship between Comprehensive Assessment Program
scores and cloze test scores was determined using the
Pearson Product-moment correlation coefficient. At all
three grade levels a statistically significant positive
relationship existed between science, English, and social
studies cloze test scores and Comprehensive Assessment
Program scores.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: TEXTBOOK READABILITY: MEASUREMENTS BY OBJECTIVE FORMULAS
COMPARED TO JUDGMENTS OF EXPERIENCED TEACHERS
Pub No: 6901682
Author: SPRAGUE, CARLTON WILLIAM
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL
Date: 1968
Pages: 215
Source: DAI-A 29/08, p. 2453, Feb 1969
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: TEXT COMPREHENSION: THE PARAMETERS OF DIFFICULTY IN
NARRATIVE AND EXPOSITORY PROSE TEXTS: A REDEFINITION OF
READABILITY
Pub No: 8203399
Author: BATEN, LUT
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
Date: 1981
Pages: 316
Source: DAI-A 42/09, p. 3937, Mar 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533); LANGUAGE, LINGUISTICS (0290)
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to define the parameters of
text and reader variables that effect comprehension in
order to redefine readability. Eight different short and
well-written texts were used. They were presented in an
international reading assessment project, administered by
the International Association for the Evaluation of
Educational Achievement (IEA) to fourteen-year-old
students from the USA and UK. Both the comprehension
scores and the readers' comprehension as assessed by
'teacher's reference' were used as criteria to assess
various factors in the text and in the implied process of
reading as they might predict difficulty or ease.
The starting point of the analysis is the organizational
and functional system of language as it is realized in
these eight texts. Different aspects of text, on a micro-
and macro-structural level were analyzed quantitatively
in relation to the comprehension of the readers. Four
main parts can be distinguished: lexicon, (including the
information structure of given, new, defined and
undefined concepts), syntax (including the speed of
closure), text structure (including coherence, lexical
chains and theme-rheme organization) and propositional
analysis (both on the micro- and the macro-structural
level).
From this analysis, some textual characteristics were
hypothesized to function as parameters of text
comprehension. They were put into a theoretical model,
which was supported by empirical data. The results showed
that the parameters indicating ease of comprehension are:
the familiarity of the lexicon and the coverage
vocabulary used; the speed of closure; the number of
defined and given concepts, and of defined and new
concepts; 'summary' as an indicator of text duration; the
narrative condition of a text; the theme-rheme
consistency, cohesive harmony, and lexical chains; and
the sequential and linear organization. Parameters
indicating difficulty of comprehension are: the number of
complex outsiders; the number of subordinated clauses
before the verb of the main clause; the number of
'reinstatements', 'reorganizations' and 'logical
reorderings'; the 'pauses' and the different arguments
used in theme position. These parameters are situated
both on the micro- and the macro-level. One parameter by
itself does not determine text difficulty, but only a set
of parameters can do so. On various levels, the
parameters are interrelated. Hence, it is not true that
text genre by itself is decisive in predicting
comprehension, but rather the parameters which are
related to the text belonging to that specific text
genre.
The study also highlights the importance of those textual
characteristics which facilitate short term memory
activity. Furthermore, the developed model proved its
transferability to other related languages, Dutch and
French.
The advantage of this approach to the analysis of
readability lies in: (1) Its method: Since the analysis
is on a quantified basis, the results are objective.
Furthermore, the analysis has proved that readability can
be objectively measured taking both the reader and the
text as internal organization into account. (2) Its
applicability: The analysis attempts to render an
explanation rather than a mere description of processing
ease of difficulty. Therefore it has pedagogical
implications for the student, the teacher and the
educator. These have been indicated. Furthermore, in its
application of the parameters of difficulty, the study
suggests that reading strategies used by readers in their
native language can be transferred to the foreign
language learning and teaching. In this way the study
paves the way to readability in foreign language. (3) Its
interdisciplinary character: The study draws upon various
fields of research (linguistics, language teaching and
learning, cognitive psychology). Models from these areas
were applied in the processing by means of analyses from
various angles on the same texts, processed by the same
readers. Readability is thus redefined from a broad view,
synthesizing and assessing our present knowledge of
discourse processing.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE APPLICATION OF THE GRANOWSKY AND BOTEL SYNTACTIC
COMPLEXITY FORMULA TO SELECTED SOCIAL SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS
TO DETERMINE READABILITY.
Pub No: 7716821
Author: CRAFT, LYNDA JANE HARRIS
Degree: EDD
School: AUBURN UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 192
Source: DAI-A 38/02, p. 718, Aug 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE CLOZE PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING READABILITY OF
ENCYCLOPEDIA MATERIAL FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS
Pub No: 6909590
Author: LISKE, WILFRED WALLACE
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK
Date: 1968
Pages: 160
Source: DAI-A 29/12, p. 4189, Jun 1969
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE CLOZE TECHNIQUE COMBINED WITH HIGH-INTEREST, LOW-
READABILITY READING MATERIALS AND LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE
READING MATERIALS TO IMPROVE THE WORD KNOWLEDGE AND
SELECTED COMPREHENSION SKILL ABILITIES OF PUPILS IN
CORRECTIVE READING CLASSES.
Pub No: 7329972
Author: PEPIN, BERNADETTE
Degree: EDD
School: ST. JOHN'S UNIVERSITY (NEW YORK)
Date: 1973
Pages: 552
Source: DAI-A 34/07, p. 3843, Jan 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE CLOZE TEST AS A PROCEDURE FOR ESTABLISHING OBJECTIVE
GERMAN PROSE READABILITY STANDARDS.
Pub No: 7908221
Author: STRONG, BRENT MARVIN
Degree: PHD
School: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 235
Source: DAI-A 39/10, p. 5999, Apr 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE COMMUNICABILITY OF TAGALOG TRANSLATIONS OF THE NEW
TESTAMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES: A COMPARISON OF THE
ACCURACY, NATURALNESS, AND READABILITY OF 1933 AND 1966
TRANSLATIONS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT IN TAGALOG
Pub No: 6806173
Author: WATERMAN, G. HENRY
Degree: PHD
School: NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
Date: 1967
Pages: 575
Source: DAI-A 28/11, p. 4505, May 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, RELIGIOUS (0527)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE CONCURRENT VALIDITY OF A NON-REINFORCED CLOZE TEST IN
DETERMINING THREE LEVELS OF READABILITY OF SELECTED
FOURTH-GRADE STUDENTS.
Pub No: 7409401
Author: THOMPSON, KELLY GORDON
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA
Date: 1973
Pages: 96
Source: DAI-A 34/10, p. 6372, Apr 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE CONTENT, READABILITY, AND READERSHIP OF A TEACHERS
ASSOCIATION PERIODICAL
Author: AZEVEDO, ALFRED J.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY
Date: 1952
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A SELECTED READABILITY FORMULA IN
THE PREDICTION OF STUDENT SUCCESS WITH TECHNICAL AND NON-
TECHNICAL READING MATERIALS.
Pub No: 6702905
Author: DRAKE, LAWRENCE COLEMAN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI - COLUMBIA
Date: 1966
Pages: 167
Source: DAI-A 27/09, p. 2937, Mar 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECT OF HIGH AND LOW READABILITY LEVEL OF LECTURES
ON SECONDARY EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED PUPIL'S LISTENING
COMPREHENSION OF MATERIAL PRESENTED
Pub No: 6808753
Author: TIMASHENKA, PAUL
Degree: EDD
School: THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1967
Pages: 128
Source: DAI-A 29/01, p. 157, Jul 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECT OF ISOLATION, READABILITY AND PARAGRAPH
ORGANIZATION ON LEARNING FROM WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIALS.
Pub No: 7516884
Author: BROWN, LAURENCE ARTHUR, JR.
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NEBRASKA - LINCOLN
Date: 1974
Pages: 202
Source: DAI-A 36/02, p. 772, Aug 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECT OF READABILITY ON READING COMPREHENSION OF
COTTAGE PARENTS IN INSTITUTIONS FOR RETARDED PERSONS.
Pub No: 7722148
Author: ROUSSEAU, MARILYN K.
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 85
Source: DAI-A 38/04, p. 2050, Oct 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, SPECIAL (0529)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECT OF READABILITY ON THE COMPREHENSION OF
CONSUMER LAWS BY ADULTS READING AT VARYING GRADE LEVELS.
Pub No: 7628601
Author: CARTER, LAWRENCE
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 96
Source: DAI-A 37/06, p. 3339, Dec 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING (0516)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECT OF REDUCED READABILITY TEXT MATERIALS ON
COMPREHENSION AND BIOLOGY ACHIEVEMENT
Pub No: 8022526
Author: WRIGHT, JILL DIANE
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL HILL
Date: 1980
Pages: 152
Source: DAI-A 41/04, p. 1514, Oct 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect
on comprehension and biology achievement of providing
high school students with materials written at a lower
level of readability than that of their assigned biology
textbook. Biology students (N = 265) from two high
schools in Alamance County, North Carolina, served as
subjects.
Two chapters from the textbook, Modern Biology (fifth
edition) were rewritten to an average readability level
of sixth grade, as judged by Fry's Readability Graph.
Comprehension of both original and rewritten materials
was tested by means of cloze passages. Cloze tests were
constructed for both technical and non-technical
passages.
Subjects were placed in one of two comprehension groups
(adequate and inadequate) on the basis of cloze test
scores on the original text material. Subjects were also
divided into strata according to the biology class which
they attended and then randomly assigned to experimental
and control groups. This resulted in the formation of
four groups: two experimental groups (adequate and
inadequate comprehension) and two control groups
(adequate and inadequate comprehension).
A folder containing the rewritten chapters was issued to
each experimental-group student. A similar folder
containing a mimeographed copy of the original text was
given to each student in the control groups. Students
used the issued materials, instead of the assigned
textbook, for approximately four weeks. No other changes
in instructional materials or methods were instituted. At
the conclusion of the unit of study, biology achievement
was measured by scores on a unit test, jointly designed
by the teachers in the study and the researcher.
Major findings of the study were as follows: (1) The
textbook, Modern Biology (fifth edition) had an average
readability level of 12th grade and was being used by
students in the 9th and 10th grades. (2) Two-thirds of
the 265 subjects experienced difficulty in comprehending,
at the instructional level, their assigned biology
textbook. (3) Cloze score comparisons between original
and rewritten materials revealed that the rewritten
materials were significantly easier to comprehend than
the textbook, p < .001. This finding held true for both
students who could comprehend satisfactorily the assigned
biology textbook and those who could not. (4) Students
demonstrated significantly better comprehension of both
technical and non-technical passages that had been
rewritten to a lower level of readability. However,
technical passages received significantly lower
comprehension scores than did non-technical passages at
the same level of readability. (5) Biology achievement
was not significantly changed when students used the
reduced readability materials, instead of the assigned
textbook, for approximately four weeks.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECT OF TEXT SIMPLIFICATION AND INSTRUCTIONAL
PROCEDURE ON THE INFERENCE GENERATION OF FIFTH-GRADE
DISABLED READERS (READABILITY, DIRECTED READING-THINKING
ACTIVITY (DR-TA), GROUP MAPPING ACTIVITY, CHILDREN'S
LITERATURE)
Pub No: 8604346
Author: PINTER, KAREN ANN
Degree: EDD
School: NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY
Date: 1985
Pages: 296
Source: DAI-A 46/12, p. 3668, Jun 1986
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: This study was designed to investigate the effects of
text simplification and instructional procedure on the
inference generation of fifth-grade subjects classified
as disabled readers. The two instructional procedures
used were the Directed Reading Activity/Group Mapping
Activity (DRA/GMA) and the Directed Reading-Thinking
Activity/Group Mapping Activity (DR-TA/GMA). The
quantity, type, and validity of the inferences generated
during the instructional procedures were assessed.
Subjects for the study were 24 fifth-grade students of
average intelligence. These subjects were randomly
selected and placed into the four groups which
constituted the cells of the experimental design: 2
(text) x 2 (instructional strategy). Each group was
composed of 3 males and 3 females.
An original story and a version of this story adapted for
a basal reader were used as texts for the study. The
adaptation process, for which the Fry Readability Formula
served as a guide, resulted in reduced sentence length
with a corresponding decrease in the numbers of
connectives and conjunctions and an increase in the
number of pronouns. In addition, the macrostructure of
the story was significantly affected by the removal of
several events.
Transcripts of the audio-taped instructional procedures
were used to count the number of inferences generated and
to classify them as Informational, Logical, Evaluative,
or Invalid. A two-way factorial analysis of variance was
used to test the hypotheses related to the quantity of
inferences generated. Chi-square tests were used to test
the hypotheses related to the type and validity of
inferences generated.
No statistically significant effect of text on inference
generation was found. Statistically significant
differences were found in the following areas related to
instructional strategy: the DR-TA/GMA resulted in the
generation of more inferences than did the DRA/GMA; the
DR-TA/GMA and the DR-TA resulted in more logical
inferences than expected; the DRA resulted in more
invalid and informational inferences than expected; and
the GMA resulted in more evaluative inferences than
expected. It was concluded that text simplification has
no statistically significant effect on readability, but
that instructional procedure does affect the inferencing
process.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: The effect of theoretical and situational knowledge of
reading on teachers' estimates of readability
Pub No: MK40597
Author: Crichlow, Kerl Alvin;
Degree: MA
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA)
Date: 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF ADJUSTING READABILITY ON THE DIFFICULTY OF
MATHEMATICS STORY PROBLEMS
Pub No: 8210026
Author: PAUL, DOUGLAS JAMES
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF IOWA
Date: 1981
Pages: 109
Source: DAI-A 42/11, p. 4718, May 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)
Abstract: This study was undertaken to determine the effects of
readability, as measured by commonly used readability
formulas, on performance on story problems by third,
fourth, fifth and sixth grade students.
Six forms of a 15-item story problem test were
administered to 1,238 students in seven Iowa school
districts. Each student completed one form of the test.
Five problems involved addition or subtraction, five
involved multiplication or division, and five were
multiple-step problems.
The six test forms varied only in readability level and
method of adjusting readability level. The Harris-
Jacobson readability formula was used to derive three
forms on which only vocabulary was allowed to vary
(Method V). The Dale-Chall and Spache formula were used
to derive three forms on which sentence structure also
was allowed to vary (Method S). The low readability forms
of both adjustment methods showed a readability well
below 4.0. Items on the middle forms showed a readability
between 4.0 and 6.0. Items on the high forms showed
readability higher than 6.0.
An ANOVA yielded statistically significant main effects
only for grade level and problem type, not for
readability level. (The mean scores varied from lowest to
highest readability tests by only 0.23; from 7.73 to
7.96.) Two interactions were statistically significant,
one between problem type and grade and a slight
interaction between problem type and adjustment method.
Uncommon extremes, such as testing 3rd graders with 16th
grade readability level items, were not addressed by this
study because the materials selection process in schools
does not involve such extremes.
Given the tight control of variables, the large sample
and the convincing lack of statistical or substantive
significance for a readability level effect on
performance, the investigator concluded: (1) Popular
readability formulas provide no useful information toward
determining the difficulty to elementary school children
of sets of story problems in mathematics; (2) The
practice of using such formulas in selecting tests and
curricular materials in mathematics problem solving is
not only highly questionable, it is most likely damaging
in unnecessarily limiting the materials allowable for
consideration in the selection process.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF BETWEEN-SENTENCE LINGUISTIC CONNECTIVES ON
THE READABILITY OF DISCOURSE
Pub No: 8221157
Author: THOMPSON, ISABELLE KRAMER
Degree: EDD
School: DUKE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 131
Source: DAI-A 43/04, p. 1069, Oct 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)
Abstract: Designed to contribute to a theory of good writing, this
study investigated the effects of explicit between-
sentence junction on textual efficiency. It manipulated
text treatment and evaluated total and individual recall
scores and reading time. Subjects for the study were 249
tenth graders, identified as high or low achievers
according to their comprehension scores on the California
Achievement Test. The target text, appearing in six
versions was an excerpt from Scientific American. Total
and individual recall scores were the number of correct
responses to multiple-choice questions. Reading time was
the number of seconds required to read the target text.
Results indicated that high achievers read faster and
remembered more targeted information than low achievers
regardless of text treatment. Naming junctive relations
did not facilitate recall or shorten reading time for
either group. Results also indicated that subjects with
the highest recall scores had the shortest reading times.
Instead of implying that explicit between-sentence
junction does not enhance textual efficiency, the results
probably reflect the difficulty of the target text and
the inadequacy of the testing procedure. Since the target
text contained entirely unfamiliar information, the
subjects probably tried to assimilate details without
considering how these details were connected.
Furthermore, since the study used multiple-choice
questions to measure recall, it encouraged subjects to
read for details and to ignore connections. Having
exhausted their reading energies deciphering the
propositions of the target text without attempting to
form generalizations, the subjects could not benefit from
explicit between-sentence junction.
The study suggested future research describing how, when,
and where between-sentence junction operates in natural
language. Future research should identify the types of
explicit between-sentence junction used most frequently
in well-written texts and designate the hierarchial level
in the meaning of a text where most explicit connections
occur. It should also consider the relationship between a
writer's purpose and the use of explicit junction and
evaluate developmental trends related to the use of
junction.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF LOWERED READABILITY AND THE USE OF A
GLOSSARY UPON READING COMPREHENSION OF SELECTED
INDUSTRIAL ARTS ELECTRONICS TEXT MATERIALS.
Pub No: 7819644
Author: PAIGE, WILLIAM DENNISON
Degree: PHD
School: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 168
Source: DAI-A 39/05, p. 2792, Nov 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, INDUSTRIAL (0521)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF READABILITY AND MACROSIGNALS ON THE
COMPREHENSION AND RECALL OF INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
Pub No: 8304080
Author: SMITH, PATRICIA LUCILLE
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 347
Source: DAI-A 43/12, p. 3854, Jun 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of macrosignals,
readability level, and training in a reading strategy on
241 high school students' comprehension and recall of a
reading passage.
Half of the students studied a reading strategy that uses
macrosignals to enhance comprehension and aid recall. The
remaining participants received instruction on
conversions in the metric system.
One week after the instruction, the students read one of
four versions of the experimental reading passage about
the Stone Ages: high readability/with macrosignals, high
readability/without macrosignals, low readability/with
macrosignals, low readability/without macrosignals.
The with-macrosignals versions included title, headings
and subheadings, topic sentences, prequestions,
introduction, and summaries. The without macrosignals
versions included none of these textual cues. The high
readability version was written at twelfth grade level
according to the Fry Readability Graph. The low
readability version, with shorter sentences and simpler
vocabulary, was written at the sixth grade level.
After the 30-minute period allowed for reading the
passage, the students responded to the 'Ease of Reading
Scale' on which they reported symptoms of comprehension
and lack of comprehension. Then the students answered
twenty multiple-choice, paraphrased comprehension
questions. One week later the students completed a free
recall test.
A multiple regression analysis revealed no interactions
between treatments or between treatments and reading
abilities. The analysis also indicated that the
macrosignals and training in the reading strategy had no
significant effects on comprehension, recall or reported
ease in reading. Readability level did not have a
significant effect on comprehension or recall.
Readability level did have a statistically significant,
but not practically important, effect on student's
reported reading ease.
Macrosignals may have failed to have an effect because
students possessed enough prior knowledge and necessary
schemata to construct the relationship between their
existing knowledge and the details of the passage. The
high readability level may not have been sufficiently
above the average student's reading ability to have the
predicted effects. The instructional treatment may not
have been practiced sufficiently to have the predicted
facilitating effects.
The attribute variables (prior knowledge and reading
ability) had the greatest influence on comprehension
scores, an intermediate effect on delayed recall scores,
and the least influence on students' reported ease in
reading.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF READABILITY OF MATHEMATICAL MATERIALS ON
ACHIEVEMENT IN AN EIGHTH GRADE MATHEMATICS CLASS
Pub No: 8312275
Author: DURHAM, ANNA MAE HAWTHORN
Degree: EDD
School: TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 159
Source: DAI-A 44/01, p. 126, Jul 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The effects of the readability level of mathematics
materials on achievement for regular eighth grade
students was experimentally studied. Readability levels
were determined by the application of R. B. Kane's
Formula II for readability of mathematics materials.
The subjects were 55 students enrolled in three regular
eighth grade mathematics classes in an inner-city middle
school. Students were assigned to a regular class based
on their Iowa Test of Basic Skills mathematics score.
One mathematics lesson was written at three different
levels of readability by manipulating the variables
presented in Kane's Formula II. Each class was randomly
divided into three groups, each group then being assigned
a different level of readability. The students were
administered a pretest and a posttest over the material
presented in the lessons.
Two basic analyses were made of the data: first, a
comparison of the range of pretest scores and the
posttest scores; second, analysis of variance of the
pretest scores, posttest scores and the difference
between the pretest scores and posttest scores. For this
analysis, arrangements were made to use the VRE library
program in the inner-city school district computer
center.
Utilizing statistical analysis, the author concluded that
the readability level of mathematics materials has a
significant effect on the achievement in mathematics. The
group that received the materials written at the losest
readability (least difficult) level scored significantly
higher on the posttest than did the other two groups.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF READABILITY, STUDY GUIDES AND LISTENING-
READING ON THE COMPREHENSION OF SIXTH GRADE SOCIAL
STUDIES TEXTBOOK MATERIALS
Pub No: 8300779
Author: SHOREMAN, DANIEL J.
Degree: EDD
School: BOSTON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF EDUCATION
Date: 1982
Pages: 201
Source: DAI-A 43/08, p. 2619, Feb 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: This study investigated the effects of readability level,
study guides and simultaneous listening-reading on social
studies textbook comprehension. Twelve intact sixth grade
classes totaling 245 students from a suburban Boston
community were used. The tests administered were: (1)
The Iowa Test of Basic Skills, Reading Comprehension
subtest, to measure reading level. (2) The Otis-Lennon
Mental Ability Test to measure IQ. (3) Four weekly tests
devised by the investigator to measure comprehension.
The statistical procedures used were analysis of
variance, analysis of variance with four repeated
measures and the Scheffe test.
Question 1: What are the differences in social studies
textbook comprehension of sixth grade students when the
following treatment methods are presented: the original
text untreated, the text rewritten to a fourth grade
level of readability, the original text accompanied by
study guides and simultaneous reading and listening of
the original text?
Findings: The Rewritten Text was significantly superior
to the Original at the .05 level using the Scheffe
procedure. The Study Guide and Listening-Reading methods
were significantly superior to the Original at the .01
level.
Question 2: What is the relationship of reading level to
the comprehension of social studies textbook materials
when presented according to the four treatment methods of
the study?
Findings: Above average readers scored significantly
higher than below average readers at the .001 level using
analysis of variance on all treatment methods combined.
Above average readers scored significantly higher using
the Rewritten Text over the Original at the .05 level. No
other significant differences were found.
Question 3: What is the relationship of intelligence to
the comprehension of social studies textbook materials
when presented according to the four treatment methods of
the study?
Findings: The high IQ group scored significantly higher
than the low IQ group at the .001 level using analysis of
variance on all four treatment methods combined. No other
significant differences were found.
Question 4: What is the relationship of sex to the
comprehension of social studies textbook materials when
presented according to the four treatment methods of the
study?
Findings: There were no significant differences between
girls and boys.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF THE READABILITY LEVELS OF COLLEGE
TEXTBOOKS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
ENROLLED AT A FOUR-YEAR, URBAN INSTITUTION
Pub No: 8905287
Author: SIMPSON, SCLEMON
Degree: EDD
School: TEXAS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY
Date: 1988
Pages: 94
Adviser: AARON, EARVIN
Source: DAI-A 50/02, p. 374, Aug 1989
Subject: EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745); EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION
(0514)
Abstract: This study examines the readability levels of four
textbooks in an effort to determine their effects on the
academic performance of freshmen students enrolled at
Clark College in the Atlanta University Center. Using the
Fry Readability Formula and the Irwin and Davis
Readability Checklist, the researcher graded the physical
science, biological science, social science, and history
textbooks--all considered content texts that are used by
entering freshmen at Clark College. The population for
this study consisted of 500 freshmen students, of which
327 were used. The researcher wanted to use the entire
population; but, for one reason or another, 173 students
did not complete the courses used for this study. Those
students were eliminated to avoid data gaps.
Using the readability levels of the textbooks and the
reading levels of the students, obtained from
administration of the Iowa Silent Reading Test, the
researcher divided the students into two groups--those
reading at or above the readability levels of the
textbooks and those reading below the readability levels
of the textbooks. The analysis of variance was used to
compare these two groups on the dependent variable,
academic performance--grades earned in each course.
The researcher found that all of the textbooks were
written above the actual reading levels of a majority of
those freshmen students who were required to purchase and
use them. Approximately 61 percent of the freshmen
students used in the study were reading below the 12th
grade level, while each textbook, when analyzed, was
categorized as 12+ grade. It was also discovered that
those students reading at or above the readability levels
of the textbooks performed significantly better than
those students who were reading below the readability
levels of the textbooks they were required to purchase
and use.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF THE READABILITY OF MATHEMATICAL MATERIALS
ON ACHIEVEMENT IN REMEDIAL MATHEMATICS IN A SELECTED
COMMUNITY COLLEGE.
Pub No: 7516633
Author: BANKSTON, LINDA VERLENE COCHRAN
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
Date: 1975
Pages: 155
Source: DAI-A 36/02, p. 815, Aug 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, SPECIAL (0529)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF THREE SENTENCE-COMBINING TRANSFORMATIONS
ON READABILITY.
Pub No: 7409298
Author: BYRNE, SHIRLEY MAXINE
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
Date: 1973
Pages: 202
Source: DAI-A 34/10, p. 6349, Apr 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFECTS OF WORD FREQUENCY, SENTENCE LENGTH AND
SENTENCE STRUCTURE ON THE READABILITY OF TWO COLLEGE
TEXTBOOK PASSAGES
Pub No: 8028185
Author: JOHNSON, LINDA LEE
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON
Date: 1980
Pages: 239
Source: DAI-A 41/10, p. 4345, Apr 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of
three stylistic factors on the readability of textbook
prose. The three stylistic factors were sentence length,
sentence structure and word frequency. The study was
intended to assess the extent to which the factors, taken
alone or in combination, affected the readability of two
1000-word college textbook passages when the content
remained the same. Readability was defined as the fluency
with which a prose passage is comprehended.
Researchers have found that word frequency and sentence
length are associated with the difficulty of short
passages intended for children. These factors need to be
examined further to determine how much they might be
responsible for the difficulty of textbooks intended for
mature readers. A third factor, sentence structure, was
also examined for its effects on readability. Sentence
structure has been suggested in three recent readability
theories as a cause of difficulty.
To assess the effects of the three stylistic factors on
textbook readability, two college textbook passages were
rewritten with shortened sentences, more frequently
occurring nontechnical words, and cumulative sentences,
those sentences containing a short base clause followed
by free modifiers. Combinations of the three variables
formed the remaining treatment conditions. The
comprehension, rate, reading efficiency and retention of
high school seniors were assessed on the original
passages and on their rewritten versions. Reading
efficiency, the number of comprehension test items
answered correctly per minute of reading time, was used
for the main measure of readability. The comprehension
assessment consisted of short answer, wh-questions
constructed from randomly selected outline statements.
At the first of two sessions conducted at four high
schools, 336 subjects read a passage about Cells or
Computers, recorded their reading times, responded on
measures of interest and comprehension, then read the
second passage. The second passage, on the other topic,
was assessed for retention a week later. The data was
primarily analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis planned
comparisons.
When the mean scores of the original versions were
contrasted with the rewritten versions, the scores fell
into patterns that may warrant further investigation,
although the statistical tests did not reach statistical
significance. The Cells passage seemed easier when
rewritten with the combination of short sentences and
more frequently occurring words and when rewritten with
the combination of all three stylistic factors. The
Computer passage seemed easier when rewritten with
sentence structure alone or in combination with other
factors.
The results were thought due to the differences in the
actual causes of difficulty in the original passages. To
the degree that difficulties in the original passages
were corrected in the rewritten versions, readability was
likely to be improved. Although some difficulties in the
original passages--lengthy base clauses and unfamiliar
nontechnical vocabulary--were corrected, the likely
overwhelming cause of difficulty, unfamiliar content, was
not corrected, resulting in nonsignificant differences in
readability.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFICACY OF CLOZE PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING READING
ABILITY OF STUDENTS AND READABILITY OF MATERIALS IN ADULT
FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS.
Pub No: 7523868
Author: ROSENKRANZ, CATHERINE ISABELLA ROGERS
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN - MADISON
Date: 1975
Pages: 139
Source: DAI-A 36/08, p. 4964, Feb 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING (0516)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE EFFICACY OF THE CLOZE PROCEDURE AS A READABILITY TOOL
ON TECHNICAL CONTENT MATERIAL AS USED IN INDUSTRIAL
EDUCATION AT THE HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL
Pub No: 7206957
Author: HOUSKA, JOSEPH THOMAS
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
Date: 1971
Pages: 199
Source: DAI-A 32/08, p. 4500, Feb 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, VOCATIONAL (0747)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE INFLUENCE OF INTRABOOK READABILITY VARIATION ON
READING COMPREHENSION
Pub No: 8021127
Author: REEVES, HAROLYN HICKMAN
Degree: EDD
School: MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1980
Pages: 243
Source: DAI-A 41/03, p. 935, Sep 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine
the effect of intrabook readability variation on the
reading comprehension performance of intermediate
students as measured by the intrabook readability test,
and (2) to determine the relationship between the
intrabook readability test, a typical informal reading
inventory, and teacher assessment of pupils'
instructional reading levels.
The population for the study was composed of 234 fifth
grade students enrolled in a public middle school located
in Northeast Mississippi. Subjects were selected through
the use of a stratified sampling technique. Thus, the
sample consisted of students who had been placed at the
5th grade instructional level in reading by their
teachers.
Two testing instruments were developed by the researcher
and used for the collection of data. The intrabook
readability test, consisting of 11 cloze test passages
taken from a 5th grade reader, Images, was used to test
reading comprehension. The 11 cloze test passages for the
intrabook readability test were selected and scaled
according to the Fry Readability Formula. The second test
instrument, developed by the examiner and used in the
study, was a typical informal reading inventory. This
informal reading inventory consisted of test passages for
oral reading, silent reading, and comprehension checks at
grade levels, preprimer to sixth grade.
Four hypotheses were tested. Percentage charts and
dependent t tests were used to analyze the data. A
significance level of .05 was used in the analysis of the
t values. The findings of the study indicated the
following:
(1) The reading comprehension of the children was
significantly affected by the intrabook readability
variation within the basal reader, Images. Beginning with
the 5th grade cloze passage, 57 percent of the sample was
reading at a frustrational reading level. The percentage
of children frustrated at a particular reading level
increased as the levels of difficulty of the test
passages increased.
This finding suggested that intrabook readability
variation should be considered as an important content
validity factor in the construction of placement tests
such as informal reading inventories and cloze
procedures, etc. Otherwise, instructional reading level
scores based on performance with one or two book samples
has external validity to only a portion of a book, in
some cases a very small portion of a book. Since no
systematic pattern of readability variation was found
with the basal reader studied, it appears that there is
no way of knowing which part of a book is predicted by an
instructional reading level short of measuring all of its
contents for readability.
(2) The intrabook readability test, used in the study to
measure reading comprehension, yielded a mean reading
placement score that was significantly different from the
mean reading placement score yielded by teacher
assessment.
(3) The informal reading inventory, used in the study to
measure reading placement, yielded a mean reading
placement score that was significantly different from the
mean reading placement score yielded by teacher
assessment.
(4) Using a confidence level of 95 percent, the intrabook
readability test mean placement score more closely
approximated the mean placement score, as measured by
teacher assessment, than did the mean placement score
yielded by the informal reading inventory.
In light of these findings, the researcher recommended
that reading teachers use intrabook readability variation
checks to aide them in the development of testing and
teaching tools, especially in the area of reading
comprehension. If used correctly, readability information
should help to bring improvement in reading comprehension
scores. Fitting the child to the correct reading material
is the key to success in reading.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE INFLUENCE OF PASSAGE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE UPON
TWO ESTIMATES OF READABILITY.
Pub No: 7429242
Author: MCWHORTER, KATHLEEN T.
Degree: EDD
School: STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BUFFALO
Date: 1974
Pages: 160
Source: DAI-A 35/06, p. 3303, Dec 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE INFLUENCE OF READABILITY OF TEXT, MOTIVATION, AND
INTELLIGENCE ON CRITICAL READING COMPREHENSION OF
SECONDARY SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS.
Pub No: 7911017
Author: RYAN, GARY THOMAS
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
Date: 1978
Pages: 139
Source: DAI-A 39/11, p. 6684, May 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF ANXIETY AND READABILITY ON
READING COMPREHENSION AND RATE OF COMPREHENSION
Pub No: 8010508
Author: LUCKETT, ALBERT JOSEPH
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
Date: 1979
Pages: 147
Source: DAI-A 40/11, p. 5805, May 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE INTERCORRELATIONS AMONG THREE READABILITY FORMULAS
WHEN APPLIED TO SELECTED FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADE
SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7214634
Author: DRIVER, JEAN RICKS
Degree: EDD
School: NORTHWESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA
Date: 1972
Pages: 97
Source: DAI-A 32/11, p. 5999, May 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS READING
ACHIEVEMENT, ORAL GENERATION AND WRITTEN PRODUCTION AS
DETERMINED BY FACTORS FOUND IN FOUR READABILITY FORMULAS
Pub No: 8229749
Author: MOHLER, LYNETTE EILEEN ZUROFF
Degree: EDD
School: MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 123
Source: DAI-A 43/07, p. 2222, Jan 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the
interrelationships existing among reading achievement,
written language production and oral language generation
of fourth grade students in Helena, Montana and Glendive,
Montana through application of those verbal elements
found in the Lorge Readability Formula, the Lazdowski
Sample Survey, the Fog Index and the Botel and Granowsky
Syntactic Complexity Formula.
The problem was investigated by (a) administering the
Gates MacGinitie Reading Achievement Test, Level D, Form
1 to 255 fourth grade students; (b) asking these students
to complete, in writing, a story starter; (c) having the
students orally tell a story; (d) transcribing the oral
generations into written form; (e) applying the Lorge
Readability Formula, the Fog Index, the Lazdowski Sample
Survey and the Botel and Granowsky Syntactic Complexity
Formula to each oral and written sample.
After the Pearson product-moment correlation was employed
the results of this study indicated that (a) there was no
statistically significant relationship between fourth
grade students' total reading achievement scores and
their writing levels as measured by the Lorge Readability
Formula, the Lazdowski Sample Survey, nor the Fog Index;
(b) there was a statistically significant relationship
between fourth grade students' writing levels as measured
by the Lazdowski Sample Survey and their reading
comprehension levels; (c) there was a statistically
significant relationship between fourth grade students'
total reading achievement scores and their writing levels
as measured by the Botel and Granowsky Syntactic
Complexity Formula; (d) there was no statistically
significant relationship between fourth grade students'
reading achievement levels and their oral production as
measured by the four readability formulas; (e) there was
no statistically significant relationship between written
generation and oral production as measured by the Lorge
Readability Formula, the Lazdowski Sample Survey or the
Fog Index; (f) there was a statistically significant
relationship between fourth grade students' speaking and
writing levels as measured by the Botel and Granowsky
Syntactic Complexity Formula.
Stepwise multiple regression identified an R('2) of
.42800 after the inclusion of seventy-two independent
variables used in this study. It was concluded that the
variables employed in this study, when applied to written
and/or oral productions, did not provide an effective
linear prediction of reading achievement.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THEORETICALLY BASED TEST ITEM READABILITY: AN APPROACH
TO ESTIMATING THE DEGREE TO WHICH AN ITEM CAN BE
UNDERSTOOD AND ANSWERED CORRECTLY (DIFFICULTY, SEMANTIC
MEMORY, DIFFERENTIAL SELECTION)
Pub No: 8618453
Author: DUNCAN, ROBERT ERIC
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
Date: 1986
Pages: 210
Source: DAI-A 47/05, p. 1705, Nov 1986
Subject: EDUCATION, TESTS AND MEASUREMENTS (0288)
Abstract: Since very few researchers have investigated test item
readability in the recent past, this research
investigated this issue in order to propose the
advantages of a semantically based theory for determining
the readability level of multiple-choice test items. The
model used in this research integrated Duncan's (1981)
approach and Kintsch's (1974) theory of semantic memory.
Major components of this integrated theory involved
syntactic variables such as left- and right-branching,
centerembeddedness, and jargon, and the semantic
variables, as adapted to fit test items, of propositional
density, operator density, argument density and
propositional level of the item. Multiple linear
regression analysis was used to predict item reading
grade level and item p-values with the predictors used in
the model of item readability created by combining
Duncan's and Kintsch's theoretical approaches. The
results indicated that both item reading grade level
(RGL) and item p-values were predicted primarily by the
semantic variables of propositional, operator, and
argument densities and propositional level, and by the
reading grade level of the text from which the items were
taken (TXTRGL). The equation which predicted item RGL was
significant ((,5)F(,187) = 13.12, p < .001) with a
multiple R of .520. This equation indicated that
increasing semantic information, reducing the
propositional level, and selecting text passages with
higher RGL's would reduce item RGL's in a highly
heterogeneous population. Item p-values were also
significantly predicted ((,4)F(,188) = 3.49, p < .01)
with a multiple R of .263. The predictors in this
equation indicated that selecting text passages with
lower RGL's reducing propositional, operator, and
argument densities would make items easier to answer.
Given these significant results, the majority of null
hypotheses stated in this research were rejected. The
major conclusions reached from the data were (a) item
readability and text readability are different entities
and (b) using text readability formulae to predict item
readability could yield inaccurate results. The model
specified in this research was found to be sufficient to
describe the data. However, further research was
suggested to more adequately test this model by
manipulating item variables and by using various other
measures of examinee reading abilities.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE PREDICTION OF FRESHMAN COMPOSITION GRADES AT A
COMMUNITY COLLEGE: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY BASED ON A
NONCOMPUTATIONAL READABILITY SCALE
Pub No: 8415654
Author: LAMB, BILL HENRY
Degree: PHD
School: KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1984
Pages: 187
Source: DAI-A 45/04, p. 1024, Oct 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness
of the Rauding Scale of Prose Difficulty applied to a
sample of a freshman students' writings in order to
predict their Written Communications I grade. By applying
an index to a writing sample of 300 words, it was
possible to rate an individual's potential for success.
It was possible to identify students in need of English
remediation.
The study was comprised of two randomly divided groups
with 110 subjects in Group 1 and 114 subjects in Group 2.
The method of this study involved six steps. First,
students completed a writing sample consisting of
approximately 300 words. Three qualified raters
identified by the Rauding Scale Qualification Test then
rated each sample and applied a grade level index to the
writing. The first group was analyzed and at the
conclusion of the semester, the mean grade level of each
student was correlated to his/her course grade. The
correlation (r = +.467) was found to be significant
beyond the .001 level.
Based on the significant correlation found in the first
group, a Linear Regression Analysis was performed which
generated a prediction regression line (Y' = .200X +
1.031). The second group was then rated by the same
raters using the readability scale. Predicted end course
grades were derived using the regression formula. The
correlation between the predicted grades and the actual
end course grades was found to be r = +.442. This figure
was also significant beyond the .001 level of confidence.
The implications of this finding were that the Rauding
Scale of Prose Difficulty applied to a freshman student
writing sample was a viable index for predicting success
or failure in Written Communications I at a selected
community college.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY AND COMPREHENSIBILITY OF SPANISH PROSE AS
DETERMINED BY THE FRASE GRAPH AND THE CLOZE PROCEDURE
Pub No: 8014255
Author: VARI-CARTIER, PATRICIA
Degree: EDD
School: RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY - NEW
BRUNSWICK
Date: 1980
Pages: 299
Source: DAI-A 41/01, p. 141, Jul 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)
Abstract: This study involved three areas of investigation: (1)
the development and validation of a graph to estimate the
readability of Spanish prose materials, (2) the
validation of the cloze procedure as a measure of the
readability of Spanish prose, and (3) an examination of
the cloze procedure as a measure of general and specific
reading comprehension.
The Spanish readability graph was developed using a
variety of Spanish textbooks and literature. Passages
selected from each source were analyzed to determine the
average number of sentences and syllables per 100 words.
The ratio of syllables to sentences was converted to
coordinate on a graph. These coordinates formed definite
clusters, the positions of which were used to develop the
quadrants designating relative passage difficulty. The
graph was titled the Fry Readability Adaptation for
Spanish Evaluation, or the acronym FRASE.
The FRASE graph was validated by comparing the
readability designations of eight specific passages, as
determined by FRASE, the Spaulding formula, subjective
teacher evaluations, cloze test scores, and multiple-
choice test scores. The Pearson Product-Moment
Correlation was used to perform the comparisons. In all
cases, FRASE graph designations correlated highly (.91 to
.97) with the alternate readability estimates. The
findings supported the hypothesis that the FRASE graph
could be used to estimate the readability of Spanish
prose.
The cloze procedure was examined as an alternate method
of estimating the readability of Spanish prose. Cloze
tests ere developed using the eight passages employed in
the FRASE graph validation study. Every 10th word was
deleted from each passage. The cloze tests were
administered to a group of 273 secondary-level Spanish
students. A cloze test score was computed for each
student. The individual students' scores were also
converted to average scores per test passage. The average
cloze scores were correlated with FRASE graph
designations, Spaulding formula designations, subjective
teacher evaluations, and multiple-choice test scores. The
cloze test scores correlated highly (.92 to .96) with
each of the alternate estimates of readability. The high
correlations confirmed the hypothesis that the cloze
procedure could be effectively used to estimate the
readability of Spanish prose materials.
Since readability (the relative difficulty of a passage)
and comprehension (the degree to which the reader derives
meaning from a passage) are related, an investigation was
conducted to determine the validity of cloze testing as a
method to measure student comprehension of Spanish
materials. The students' cloze scores were correlated
with their scores on the Pimsleur Spanish Proficiency
Test of Reading Comprehension (a standardized instrument
to assess general comprehension) and on multiple-choice
tests. No averages were computed with this set of test
data as student performance, not passage difficulty, was
being measured.
Moderate correlations (.75 to .78) were obtained from
comparing the cloze tests, the multiple-choice tests, and
the Pimsleur tests. These findings supported the
hypothesis that the cloze procedure could be used to
measure both the specific and general comprehension of
students studying Spanish.
The significance of this study is that it provides
teachers with a new and easy-to-use method of estimating
the readability of Spanish prose materials intended for
classroom use. The results of the cloze investigations
indicate that educators can use the procedure to augment
existing testing methods, to evaluate material
difficulty, and measure student progress.
The study opens new avenues of investigation to
researchers in the fields of readability and
comprehension in second languages. Useful information may
be derived from additional studies using the FRASE graph
and the cloze procedure to other facets of foreign
language instruction.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY LEVELS OF RECENTLY PUBLISHED ELEMENTARY
SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 0008881
Author: BURKEY, JACOB EUGENE
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1954
Pages: 81
Source: DAI- 14/09, p. 1328, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF ABSTRACTS AND SOURCE DOCUMENTS.
Pub No: 7409867
Author: DRONBERGER, GLADYS BARRETT
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
Date: 1973
Pages: 74
Source: DAI-A 34/11, p. 7039, May 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF ADULT HEALTH EDUCATION MATERIALS
(ADULT EDUCATION)
Pub No: 9017120
Author: DUFFY, MARGARET MCLAUGHLIN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA
Date: 1989
Pages: 124
Source: DAI-A 51/04, p. 1124, Oct 1990
Subject: EDUCATION, HEALTH (0680); EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING
(0516); EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine if
the most widely distributed current health education
materials of the national health related voluntary
associations are written below ninth grade reading level
and incorporate document design features known to
facilitate the reading process. A Document Design
Features Appraisal Form (DDFAF) was developed from a
review of the literature and sent to experts in the areas
of reading research and adult literacy. The form was
subsequently revised and weighted based on feedback from
this group. A total of 60 pamphlets were collected from
the following associations: American Lung Association,
American Diabetes Association, American Heart
Association, American Cancer Society, and the National
Kidney Foundation. A DDFAF was completed for all 60
pamphlets.
Ranges of reading grade levels were found to be: Fry
Readability Formula (5.67 to 17.0+); SMOG Readability
Formula (7.12 to 15.61); and Fog Readability Formula
(6.41 to 16.83). The means were Fry--11.08, SMOG--11.37,
and Fog--12.07. Correlations of the three readability
formulas were strongly positive: Fry $-$ SMOG =.8895; Fry
$-$ Fog =.8672 and SMOG $-$ Fog =.9885.
The DDFAF quantified the use of 30 document design
features. These 30 features were incorporated in the
health education materials surveyed from a minimum of
50.7% to a maximum of 86%.
The use of Pearson product moment correlation
coefficients showed that there was a significant negative
association between reading grade levels and document
design scores, i.e., the lower the reading grade level
(as determined by the readability formulas of Fry, SMOG,
and Fog) the higher document design score (the higher the
inclusion of document design features known to facilitate
the reading process).
In this study, very few health education materials were
found to be written below ninth grade level (6 out of 60)
and none was written at or below the fifth grade level.
All materials included some of the document design
features known to facilitate the reading process.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF CERTAIN TYPE SIZES AND FORMS IN SIGHT-
SAVING CLASSES
Author: MCNALLY, HAROLD J.
Degree: PHD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1944
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF CHILDREN'S LITERATURE PUBLISHED IN THE
UNITED STATES DURING THE PERIOD JUNE 1956 THROUGH JUNE
1958
Pub No: 6002889
Author: GRIESE, ARNOLD ALFRED
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA
Date: 1960
Pages: 173
Source: DAI- 21/03, p. 496, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF CLASSROOM PERIODICALS FOR UPPER
ELEMENTARY GRADES
Pub No: 7004174
Author: RICHARDSON, SELMA KATHERINE
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Date: 1969
Pages: 163
Source: DAI-A 30/09, p. 3648, Mar 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF ECONOMIC TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 0015119
Author: ZAHNISER, KENNETH CLAIR
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1955
Pages: 129
Source: DAI- 16/01, p. 84, May 1968
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA TEXTUAL MATERIAL
Pub No: 7201247
Author: KULM, GERALD
Degree: EDD
School: COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1971
Pages: 129
Source: DAI-A 32/06, p. 2913, Dec 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF GEOMETRY AND ALGEBRA/TRIGONOMETRY
TEXTBOOKS AS IT RELATES TO SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE, SEX, AND
BOOK POSITION.
Author: SMITH, WILLIAM HAROLD
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Date: 1977
Source: DAI-A 38/08, p. 4558, Feb 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF OFFICIAL SEABURY AND RELATED RESOURCE
MATERIAL AS MEASURED BY THE FLESCH FORMULA: A STUDY OF
SOME EPISCOPAL CHURCH SCHOOL MATERIAL PUBLISHED PRIOR TO
1956
Pub No: 0020040
Author: PEARSE, MAX MILTON, JR
Degree: EDRD
School: HARTFORD SEMINARY
Date: 1956
Pages: 240
Source: DAI- 17/06, p. 1256, Mar 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF OHIO READING CIRCLE BOOKS
Pub No: 0018236
Author: HOLLINGSWORTH, GLEN HOWARD
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1956
Pages: 207
Source: DAI- 16/12, p. 2348, Mar 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF PROJECTED CAPTIONS FOR CHILDREN 6-9
YEARS OF AGE
Pub No: 7011718
Author: COSTELLO, JAMES WILLIAM
Degree: EDD
School: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1970
Pages: 84
Source: DAI-A 31/01, p. 281, Jul 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF SELECTED FOURTH, FIFTH AND SIXTH-GRADE
SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS AS DETERMINED BY THE FRY
READABILITY GRAPH AND GROUP INFORMAL READING INVENTORIES.
Pub No: 7720479
Author: PRUITT, JANET LOUISE MCCRACKEN
Degree: EDD
School: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 192
Source: DAI-A 38/05, p. 2529, Nov 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF SELECTED RELIGIOUS MATERIALS FOR
CATHOLIC ELEMENATRY SCHOOLS
Author: CORCORAN, M. JEROME, SISTER
Degree: PHD
School: CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1952
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF SELECTED TENTH-GRADE BIOLOGY TEXT
MATERIALS
Pub No: 7010284
Author: HOLLER, RICHARD LEROY
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND COLLEGE PARK
Date: 1969
Pages: 157
Source: DAI-A 30/12, p. 5225, Jun 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF SELECTED TEXTBOOKS AND THE READING
ABILITIES OF FRESHMAN STUDENTS AT A COMMUNITY COLLEGE
Pub No: 8714281
Author: PRIDE, JOANN
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI
Date: 1987
Pages: 130
Source: DAI-A 48/03, p. 618, Sep 1987
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: Open admissions policies and greater availability of
financial aid have contributed to an increase in the
heterogeneity of students admitted to colleges. These
students have a wide range of academic abilities,
academic goals, and social interests. They are expected
to read at levels required to understand the material
assigned by instructors in the various content areas.
However, great discrepancies exist between the reading
abilities of these students and the readability of their
textbooks.
The purposes of this study were to investigate: (1) the
reading grade levels of freshman students enrolled in
introductory biology, English, and history courses at
Palm Beach Junior College, North Campus, during the Fall
and Winter semesters of 1985-86; (2) the readability
levels of textbooks used in these courses; (3) the
relationship between the students' reading grade levels
and the readability levels of the textbooks; and (4) the
relationship between students' achievement as measured by
final course grades and their reading grade levels.
The Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Form C, was the instrument
applied to obtain reading scores from students, and the
Dale-Chall Readability Formula was used to ascertain
readability scores for the textbooks. The Pearson
Correlation and the Bivariate Regression Analysis were
used to test the reading grade equivalency levels and the
students' final course grades.
The analysis of data indicated that there were no
relationships between the readability levels of the
biology and history textbooks, the vocabulary,
comprehension and total grade equivalency scores, and the
final course grade. However, there was a relationship
between the readability level of the English textbook,
the vocabulary, comprehension, and total scores, and the
students' final course grades. Students who possessed
reading levels higher than the readability levels of
their textbooks did not receive higher grades than those
who possessed reading levels below the readability levels
of their assigned textbooks.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF SPANISH READING MATERIALS AT THE
ELEMENTARY LEVEL
Pub No: 8407964
Author: MARTINEZ, JOYCE LUJAN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES
Date: 1983
Pages: 143
Source: DAI-A 44/12, p. 3595, Jun 1984
Subject: EDUCATION, ELEMENTARY (0524)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the notions of
readability and design a readability graph for assessing
the difficulty level of elementary Spanish reading
textbooks. The study was conducted using the procedure
developed in English by Fry (1968, 1969) and adapted for
adult Spanish prose by Vari-Cartier (1980). This
procedure was based on the theory that syllable count and
sentence length were key factors in predicting
readability. The present study was centered around 160
Hispanic elementary students receiving Spanish reading
instruction in bilingual programs in Colorado. Passages
of one hundred words from twenty-one Spanish reading
textbooks representing the five reading series used most
often in Colorado bilingual programs were analyzed with
regard to syllable count and sentence length. This
information was used to group the textbooks into six
broad grade level equivalents and, thus, develop the
Mart(')inez Readability Graph (MRG) for assessing the
readability level of Spanish reading textbooks. To
validate the graph, cloze tests developed from the
twenty-one textbook passages were administered to the
subjects. Further validation was accomplished by asking
twenty experienced bilingual teachers (representing
grades K-6) to evaluate the difficulty level of the
textbooks. The results of the cloze tests and teacher
evaluations were correlated to the textbook category
groupings assigned by the MRG. The data resulted in
strong inverse correlations (-.68 to -.96), meaning that
scores became lower as the tests became more difficult.
This gave strength to the hypothesis that syllable count
and sentence length are primary factors in determining
the difficulty level of elementary Spanish reading
textbooks.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF SUBJECT MATTER MATERIAL RE-WRITTEN ON
THE BASIS OF STUDENTS' ORAL READING MIS-CUES
Pub No: 7210847
Author: HITTLEMAN, DANIEL RICHARD
Degree: EDD
School: HOFSTRA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1971
Pages: 197
Source: DAI-A 32/10, p. 5534, Apr 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF TEXTBOOKS ON THE TEACHING OF READING
Author: SWARTS, MARY G.
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1953
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READABILITY OF THE EASY-TO-READ TRADE BOOKS.
Pub No: 7412311
Author: LAUGHLIN, MILDRED KNIGHT
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
Date: 1973
Pages: 120
Source: DAI-A 34/12, p. 7519, Jun 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: The readability of the mathematics textbook: With
special reference to the mature student
Pub No: MQ44873
Author: Defence, Astrid;
Degree: MTM
School: CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY (CANADA)
Date: 1994
Pages: 181
Adviser: Sierpinska, Anna
ISBN: 0-612-44873-8
Source: MAI 38/03, p. 525, Jun 2000
Subject: EDUCATION, MATHEMATICS (0280); EDUCATION, ADULT AND
CONTINUING (0516)
Abstract: The readability of their mathematics textbook is of prime
importance to the College or University level students.
These students are no longer taught mathematics concepts
as they were at school in a teacher-controlled
environment. They must be able to confidently turn to
their textbook for meaningful explanations of the
mathematics they are learning. However many students find
reading their mathematics textbook a fruitless task. They
were never taught how to read mathematical text or indeed
that reading such text needed special reading skills.
Consequently they find that they do not understand the
language it is written in and are constantly faced with
vocabulary that is at the same time familiar yet has
taken on a different meaning. Much research has been
conducted into the problems with the ambiguities between
Mathematical English and Ordinary English at the school
level, but this study is an investigation into the
ambiguities in language encountered by students who have
returned to studies after several years in the work
force. Do their added years of experience make their
reading of mathematical text easier or harder? How much
teacher input is still necessary? Can they learn the
mathematics from the textbook alone? It is in an attempt
to seek answers to these questions that this study was
undertaken.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READING ABILITIES OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN EARTH SCIENCE
STUDENTS COMPARED WITH THE READABILITY OF SELECTED EARTH
SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 7011281
Author: BURFORD, ERNEST, JR.
Degree: PHD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1969
Pages: 130
Source: DAI-A 30/12, p. 5315, Jun 1970
Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READING ABILITIES OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN SOCIAL SCIENCE
STUDENTS COMPARED WITH THE READABILITY OF SELECTED SOCIAL
SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7810778
Author: TIGNOR, BEATRICE PROCTOR
Degree: EDD
School: THE GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 281
Source: DAI-A 39/01, p. 158, Jul 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READING ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN
ENROLLED IN SELECTED FIRST-SEMESTER COLLEGE COURSES
COMPARED WITH THE READABILITY LEVELS OF TEXTBOOKS
ASSIGNED IN THOSE COURSES.
Pub No: 7816608
Author: FOX, DICKIE LEE
Degree: PHD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 136
Source: DAI-A 39/05, p. 2721, Nov 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READING ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS OF COMMUNITY COLLEGE
FRESHMEN ENROLLED IN A MODULAR ENGLISH COURSE COMPARED
WITH THE READABILITY LEVELS OF BOOKS ASSIGNED IN THE
COURSE.
Pub No: 7604658
Author: SLOVAK, PAULINE ANDERSON
Degree: EDD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1975
Pages: 116
Source: DAI-A 36/08, p. 5096, Feb 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE READING PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS WITH NINTH GRADE
READING ACHIEVEMENT ON OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION MATERIALS
WRITTEN WITH VARIOUS LEVELS OF READABILITY
Pub No: 6700297
Author: KNIGHT, DAVID W.
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1966
Pages: 71
Source: DAI-A 27/08, p. 2425, Feb 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG ELEVEN STRUCTURAL VARIABLES AND
THE READABILITY OF ADVANCED ALGEBRA TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 9014066
Author: WANSERSKI, WILLIAM A.
Degree: PHD
School: MARQUETTE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1989
Pages: 225
Adviser: BOGENSCHILD, ERIKA
Source: DAI-A 51/06, p. 1945, Dec 1990
Subject: EDUCATION, MATHEMATICS (0280); EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND
INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: Very little research has been directed toward the
readability of mathematical material, especially in the
secondary math curriculum. This study investigated the
relationship between the readability of advanced algebra
textbooks and eleven structural variables--prepositions,
conjunctions, sentence length, symbols, math terminology,
adjectives, word/symbol alternation, textual
highlighting, verbs, phrase qualifiers, and gender words.
Cloze reading tests were constructed from one-hundred
passages randomly drawn from ten textbooks. 728 advanced
math students from 13 high schools in Milwaukee
Wisconsin, completed the Cloze reading tests.
Regression analysis, t-tests, AOV, and correlation
analysis were applied to the data. Independent readers
experienced significantly higher success on illustrative
excerpts (p $<$.01) while less-capable readers performed
significantly poorer (p $<$.01) on illustrative passages.
The continual change between words and symbols was the
best predictor (p $<$.001) of explanatory readability and
was positively correlated to readability. Although
sentence length adversely affected readability, it
accounted for less than one percent of the total reading
variance. Textual highlighting enhanced the readability
of explanatory excerpts.
The presence of prepositions, in illustrative passages,
was the most significant predictor (p $<$.001). While
prepositions and math terminology reduced readability,
textual highlighting and mathematical verbs improved the
illustrative readability.
Although conventional reading formulas utilize sentence
length, this practice appears to be inappropriate for
advanced math textbooks in light of the sentence length's
negligible impact on the reading data. Since less than
five percent of the reading variance can be attributed to
the combined effect of the variables, other factors may
possibly affect the adolescent's ability to read textual
material in secondary mathematics. Future readability
research should consider the subject's attitude, interest
level, abstract reasoning ability, motivation, and the
cumulative math skills.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COLOR PREFERENCE AND READABILITY
OF PROJECTED BLACK CHARACTERS WITH A COLORED BACKGROUND,
UNDER CONDITIONS OF CONTROLLED LUMINANCE AND TRANSMISSION
Pub No: 7124567
Author: SNOWBERG, RICHARD LEE
Degree: EDD
School: INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1971
Pages: 102
Source: DAI-A 32/03, p. 1349, Sep 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READABILITY AND COMPREHENSION OF
HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICS TEXTBOOKS
Pub No: 0019382
Author: MARSHALL, JAMES STANLEY
Degree: PHD
School: SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1956
Pages: 127
Source: DAI- 17/01, p. 64, Mar 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READABILITY OF ASSIGNED
TEXTBOOKS AND READING LEVEL OF STUDENTS IN A SCHOOL OF
NURSING.
Pub No: 7705507
Author: KILIAN, GLORIA LAVERNE
Degree: PHD
School: KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 113
Source: DAI-A 37/09, p. 5530, Mar 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING (0516)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READABILITY OF WRITTEN MATERIAL
AND READING COMPETENCY OF UPPER-MIDDLE CLASS ADULT
READERS.
Pub No: 7902063
Author: ABRAM, MARIE JOANNE
Degree: PHD
School: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 121
Source: DAI-A 39/08, p. 4653, Feb 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, ADULT AND CONTINUING (0516)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN READING ABILITY IN ENGLISH OF
THAI COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE READABILITY LEVELS OF THEIR
ENGLISH COURSE TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7521426
Author: NILAGUPTA, SIRIRAT
Degree: PHD
School: THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1975
Pages: 99
Source: DAI-A 36/04, p. 2077, Oct 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEXT READABILITY AND STUDENT
READING LEVEL AND ITS EFFECT ON COLLEGE ACHIEVEMENT.
Pub No: 7622426
Author: BALSER, ELIZABETH ANN
Degree: EDD
School: WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1976
Pages: 144
Source: DAI-A 37/04, p. 2098, Oct 1976
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READABILITY OF PRINCIPALS'
WRITTEN COMMUNICATION AND TEACHER MORALE IN SELECTED
CALIFORNIA SCHOOLS
Pub No: 8319238
Author: MILLER, THOMAS JAMES
Degree: EDD
School: NORTHERN ARIZONA UNIVERSITY
Date: 1983
Pages: 127
Source: DAI-A 44/06, p. 1651, Dec 1983
Subject: EDUCATION, ADMINISTRATION (0514)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a
relationship between the readability level of principals'
written communication and teacher morale. Eighteen
schools located in San Diego County, California
participated in the research.
Written communications generated by the principals,
directed to the entire faculty, were collected Fall
semester 1979. A readability level for each of the
written communications was established using the SMOG
Readability Formula. An average readability level was
determined and assigned to each principal's written
communication. This average was hand tabulated by the
researcher. This average score became one of the
independent variables for the analysis of the data. Of
the 756 pieces of collected communications, 561 were
useable. These useable pieces of communication ranged in
readability level from 6.7 to 10.8.
The Purdue Teacher Opinionaire was used to measure
faculty morale. It consists of one hundred statements
related to teacher morale. The items were separated into
ten factors: (1) teacher rapport with principal, (2)
satisfaction with teaching, (3) rapport among teachers,
(4) teacher salary, (5) teacher load, (6) curriculum
issues, (7) teacher status, (8) community support, (9)
school facilities and services, and (10) community
pressures.
The Opinionaire was administered by the principal or
his/her designee in January 1980. The teachers responded
on computer response cards. The cards were computer
analyzed and a mean for each factor was established. This
mean was used as the other independent variable for the
study. The Spearman Rank-Order Correlation Coefficient
(Rho) was used for statistical analysis.
The relationship between the readability level of the
principals' written communication and teacher morale on
any of the ten factors of the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire
was not significant. The Spearman Rank Order Correlation
Coefficient ranged from -.2966 to .3050 for the various
factors.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READING ABILITY LEVELS OF
FRESHMAN COLLEGE STUDENTS AND THE READABILITY LEVELS OF
REQUIRED ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7909668
Author: MORRISON, LURA GENE
Degree: PHD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 263
Source: DAI-A 39/12, p. 7273, Jun 1979
Subject: EDUCATION, SECONDARY (0533)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READING ABILITY LEVELS OF
SELECTED ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY STUDENTS AND THE
READABILITY LEVELS OF SELECTED ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES
TEXTBOOKS.
Pub No: 7824153
Author: VICKERY, KAREN SUE
Degree: EDD
School: EAST TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1978
Pages: 154
Source: DAI-A 39/06, p. 3342, Dec 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE READING ABILITY OF STUDENTS
ENROLLED IN MASTER'S DEGREE NURSING PROGRAMS AND THE
READABILITY OF THE RESEARCH TEXTS THEY USE
Pub No: 8818142
Author: DEARMAN, CATHERINE ELIZABETH NORED
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI
Date: 1988
Pages: 136
Adviser: COX, DAVID W.
Source: DAI-A 49/06, p. 1416, Dec 1988
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535); EDUCATION, ADULT AND
CONTINUING (0516); EDUCATION, HIGHER (0745)
Abstract: The relationship between the reading ability of students
enrolled in master's programs in nursing and the
readability of their research textbook was researched.
The study was designed to determine which of several
demographic variables were related to reading ability.
Two hundred and twelve students enrolled in fifteen
master's program in the southeastern United States
participated in the study. These students completed a
demographic questionnaire and The Nelson Denny Reading
Test, Form E. The reading tests were administered by
faculty at each of the participating institutions.
A microcomputer software program, The Fry Graph, was used
to test excerpts from each of the research texts used by
respondents in the study. The readability of each text
was correlated to the reading grade equivalents of the
students who used it.
Six hypotheses were tested. The results of the chi-square
analyses indicate that the reading ability of students
was significantly related to two of the variables and not
significantly related to the other four variables. The
student's race and the amount of weekly reading were the
variables determined to be significantly related to
reading ability at the.01 level.
Variables not found to be significantly related to
reading ability are age, grade point average, number of
hours completed in the program and previous experience
with research.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOCABULARY AND READABILITY OF
SCIENCE TEXTBOOKS FOR GRADES FOUR, FIVE, AND SIX
Pub No: 8211360
Author: STEINBERG, JOAN EMILY
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SAN FRANCISCO
Date: 1981
Pages: 501
Source: DAI-A 42/12, p. 5076, Jun 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: When the Dale-Chall formula is used to measure
readability of intermediate grade science textbooks, it
consistently gives grade equivalents higher than the
publishers' designations. In nine intermediate grade
science textbooks fourteen readability variables,
including twelve vocabulary variables, were compared.
ANOVAS were used to determine the proportion of variance
accounted for by differences in three grade levels, three
science subject areas, three publishers' series, and
their interactions. Means were compared using differences
in percent of common within-group standard deviations.
Science prose passages contained relatively large numbers
of unfamiliar words compared to the criterion passages on
which the Dale-Chall formula is based. Inflated grade
equivalents for the science textbooks were produced by
these words. The criterion passages and the science prose
passages also differed in vocabulary load and sentence
length characteristics, suggesting that differences in
English prose preclude the use of a single readability
formula for all types.
Differences across subject areas in text frequency, word
frequency (Standard Frequency Index), and numbers of
unfamiliar words, especially technical vocabulary words,
showed greater variation than across publishers' series
or, in some instances, even across grade levels. Most
unfamiliar words were technical vocabulary words which
were repeated more often than were two other categories
of unfamiliar words. The Dale-Chall formula is
insensitive to text frequency differences. In passages
where many unfamiliar words were repeated, accounting for
text frequency lowered readability values. Repeated
technical vocabulary words are probably low information
words that contribute to the reading ease of a passage.
This finding is compatible with Finn's theory of lexical
markers and transfer features. While polynomial
regression analysis generally showed the relationships
between the readability variables to be linear, the
relationship between text frequency and Standard
Frequency Index was explained in terms of a nonlinear
relationship between them previously described by Finn.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP OF LETTER STYLE, LETTER SIZE, AND
VIEWING DISTANCE TO THE READABILITY OF TRANSPARENT
VISUALS
Pub No: 7309155
Author: GROOTERS, LYLE EUGENE
Degree: EDD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA
Date: 1973
Pages: 81
Source: DAI-A 33/10, p. 5615, Apr 1973
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP OF MODE OF ORGANIZING FEATURE IN PRINT
MATERIALS OF TWO READABILITY LEVELS TO THE RETENTION
SCORES OF COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATES.
Author: COYLE, ANNE FRANCES
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA
Date: 1978
Source: DAI-A 39/05, p. 2886, Nov 1978
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP OF READABILITY TO READING COMPREHENSION
Pub No: 7118442
Author: SCHWIMMER, STEPHEN
Degree: PHD
School: THE UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT
Date: 1971
Pages: 86
Source: DAI-A 32/01, p. 257, Jul 1971
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP OF SELECTED UNITS OF MEASUREMENT IN
PASSAGES OF VARYING READABILITY TO READING RATE AND
NUMBER OF VISUAL FIXATIONS.
Pub No: 8001495
Author: RITTY, JAMES MICHAEL
Degree: PHD
School: OHIO UNIVERSITY
Date: 1979
Pages: 106
Source: DAI-A 40/07, p. 3918, Jan 1980
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIONSHIP OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF PUPILS TO
THEIR COMPREHENSION OF REFERENCE MATERIALS WRITTEN AT
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF READABILITY.
Pub No: 6706628
Author: HAYES, GLENN WARREN
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
Date: 1966
Pages: 122
Source: DAI-A 27/11, p. 3773, May 1967
Subject: EDUCATION, THEORY AND PRACTICE (0532)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELATIVE READABILITY OF TEN COLLEGIATE ENGLISH
HANDBOOKS WITH A VALIDATION OF THE FRY READABILITY GRAPH
FOR LEVELS 13-17
Pub No: 8124322
Author: LONGO, JUDITH ARLENE
Degree: PHD
School: INDIANA UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
Date: 1981
Pages: 142
Source: DAI-A 42/05, p. 2049, Nov 1981
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The purpose of the study is twofold: to assess the
readability of English handbooks intended for use by
college freshmen and to provide comparative validity data
for levels 13-17 of the Fry Readability Graph. No
readability studies of college English texts have been
done and the Fry Graph has not been validated at these
levels.
Handbooks were chosen primarily from those whose content
had been evaluated in Barbara Currier Bell's 'Choosing a
Reference Book for Writing,' College Composition and
Communication, 32 (1981), 38-46. The following ten
handbooks were selected for analysis: (1) Sheridan Baker,
The Complete Stylist and Handbook, 1976. (2) Sylvan
Barnet and Marcia Stubbs's Practical Guide to Writing,
3rd ed., 1980. (3) Frederick Crews, The Random House
Handbook, 3rd ed., 1980. (4) Robert M. Gorrell and
Charlton Laird, Modern English Handbook, 6th ed., 1976.
(5) Harbrace College Handbook, John C. Hodges and Mary E.
Whitten, ed., 1977. (6) Heath's College Handbook of
Composition, Langdon Elsbree, Frederick Bracher and Nell
Altizer, ed., 9th ed., 1976. (7) The Macmillan Handbook
of English, John M. Kierzek and Walker Gibson, rev. by
Robert F. Willson, Jr., 6th ed., 1977. (8) James M.
McCrimmon, Writing With a Purpose, 7th ed., 1980. (9)
Dean Memering and Frank O'Hare, The Writer's Work, 1980.
(10) Writer's Guide and Index to English, David Ebbitt
and Wilma R. Ebbitt, eds., 6th ed., 1978.
The study establishes the readability of the paragraph,
essay, and research sections of each handbook according
to four readability formulas. Most handbooks ranked at
about twelfth grade reading level.
The history of readability research in the twentieth
century is detailed and all relevant literature pertinent
to the Fry formula is reviewed. Comparative validity data
for the Fry graph were gathered by applying three
additional formulas, the Dale-Chall, the Flesch, and the
Farr-Jenkins-Paterson.
The relatively low number of handbook passages measured
at college grade levels diminishes the amount of data
available for a validation study. However, seven samples
ranked at college readability according to the Fry graph.
Of the twenty-one possible comparisons to the levels from
the other three formulas, twenty concurred with the Fry
grade equivalents. The data indicate a promising
beginning toward validating levels 13-17 of the graph.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE RELIABILITY OF ECONOMIC TEXTBOOK READABILITY INDEXES
AS A MEASURE OF COGNITIVE GAIN: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Pub No: 9602108
Author: DEEL, REBECCA LYNNE
Degree: DA
School: MIDDLE TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1995
Pages: 143
Source: DAI-A 56/09, p. 3531, Mar 1996
Subject: EDUCATION, SOCIAL SCIENCES (0534); ECONOMICS, GENERAL
(0501)
Abstract: This study sought to establish whether readability and
cognitive gain are related in principles of economics
textbooks, and thus, whether readability indexes are
effective measures of text earnability. The research was
conducted at Middle Tennessee State University,
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, during the 1995 spring semester.
Five principles of macroeconomics classes were utilized
involving 81 students.
In each class, students were given three readings either
from a textbook judged to be difficult or from one judged
to be easy to read in an alternating pattern. Before and
after the three readings each student was tested on three
topics treated in similar fashion in both books. The
first or narrative topic covered exchanged rates while
the second and third topics were quantitative and
graphical and involved cost analysis and monopoly profit
maximization. Information gain then was measured by the
difference in the pre- and posttest mean scores.
Statistical significance of the mean score difference was
indicated by utilizing the standardized t-distribution
test. When the statistical test was applied, no
significant differences were found in cognitive gain for
the books' narrative and graphical sections. This finding
suggests that readability indexes are not indicative of
potential information gain for textbook material
presented in the narrative or graphical form. However, in
the quantitative section, a statistically significant
difference in information gain emerged, suggesting that
readability indexes are indicative of possible cognitive
gain.
A least squares regression model was also developed to
explore the interaction between student demographic
characteristics, readability, and cognitive gain. Of six
demographic variables included in the model, only student
sex and class standing were statistically significant.
Textbook readability index value proved not to be
statistically significant as an explanatory variable.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE USE OF A CLOZE TEST TO JUDGE THE READABILITY OF A
PROPOSED SCIENCE TEXT FOR A SIXTH GRADE
Pub No: 8210574
Author: ZIPIN, BETTE ITKIS
Degree: PHD
School: TEMPLE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 148
Source: DAI-A 42/12, p. 5077, Jun 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: The study attempted to discover an alternative to a
publisher's application of a readability formula to
indicate the suitability of a book for a student. There
were two parts to the investigation. The aim of Study I
was to see how closely cloze technique results would
correlate with the readability formula results as used on
a science textbook recommended by the publisher for sixth
grade children. In Study II the aim was to determine if
the cloze technique would be a valid predictor when
compared to the results on an Informal Reading Inventory
(IRI).
For the cloze a test section near the middle of the Level
6 text was selected. With the first sentence intact,
beginning with the second sentence, every tenth word was
deleted until there were 50 blanks. The tenth-word
deletion pattern was chosen because a literature review
indicated that with content materials containing a
density of facts a wider deletion pattern would cause
less frustration. For practice, a six-item cloze was
constructed in similar fashion from material in a Level 3
text from the same publisher. The practice cloze and the
target cloze were used in both Study I and Study II.
For Study I, a sample of 106 students was drawn. They
were in five sixth-grade classes in two elementary
schools. On the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT) these
children had attained a mean grade-equivalent score in
Total Reading of 7.44. The product-moment correlation
between Total Reading and cloze was .67. However, there
was not total agreement among the publisher's assigned
readability level for the entire text (Dale-Chall 4), the
investigator's application of the formula to the samples
of the text used for the cloze test (Dale-Chall 5-6), and
interpretation of the mean grade-equivalent score on the
SAT (did 7.44 indicate instructional, frustration, or
independent level?). On the cloze test the majority of
the group, 77%, scored at instructional level and above.
Thus, there appeared to be justification for exercising
caution in trying to 'match' a standardized test grade-
equivalent score to a formula readability estimate. . . .
(Author's abstract exceeds stipulated maximum length.
Discontinued here with permission of school) UMI


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: The use of readability indices for predicting test item
difficulty
Pub No: MK56847
Author: Doughty, Anthony Edward;
Degree: MEd
School: UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA (CANADA)
Date: 1982
ISBN: 0-315-08930-X
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)
Abstract: No abstracts in the Database

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE VALIDITY OF A MEASURE OF SENTENCE EMBEDDEDNESS IN
PREDICTING READABILITY.
Pub No: 7401650
Author: SVINGEN, TERRANCE RANDALL
Degree: EDD
School: UNIVERSITY OF NORTHERN COLORADO
Date: 1973
Pages: 129
Source: DAI-A 34/08, p. 4973, Feb 1974
Subject: EDUCATION, TEACHER TRAINING (0530)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: THE VOCABULARY LOAD OF THE NATION'S BEST SELLERS FROM
1662 TO 1945: A STUDY IN READABILITY
Pub No: 0008885
Author: CRAIG, JAMES CALVIN
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH
Date: 1954
Pages: 111
Source: DAI- 14/09, p. 1330, 1962
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: TRANSACTIONAL CONTEXTS OF LITERATURE-BASED READING:
SELECTION, READABILITY, RESPONSE
Pub No: 9505729
Author: AYMOND, JUDITH LEE
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
Date: 1993
Pages: 171
Adviser: POWELL, WILLIAM R.
Source: DAI-A 55/09, p. 2692, Mar 1995
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727); EDUCATION,
READING (0535); EDUCATION, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE (0279)
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine elementary
school children's choices of and responsiveness to self-
selected reading materials. Within these parameters, four
areas were investigated. The domains involved the ways
children select readings and the types of readings they
select, the difficulty level of the material selected,
the student's responsiveness to those selections, and an
algorithm to aid students in the selection process.
Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used in
an effort to yield accurate, authentic descriptions of
readers as they engage in the selection and response
processes. Data sources included school cumulative
records for demographic and standardized test
information; classroom records for informal reading
inventory scores, reading logs for specific selections
and responses, and reader response rating forms;
difficulty level of each book selected; student and
teacher interviews; fieldnotes; and video and
audiotaping.
The following conclusions were derived from findings
based on book selections having no genre or source
specified beforehand. First, children tend to choose
materials much in keeping with the interests of their
gender and age group. Second, the expansion-contraction
ratio bears evidence that, in selecting materials at
their independent and instructional reading ability
levels, children do strive to read at higher levels, that
is, in a more expansive way when given freedom of choice.
Third, the self-selection factor of this program
encourages participants to self-regulate the reading
process resulting in an expansion-contraction rhythm of
growth in independent and instructional reading ability
levels. Fourth, selection, reading, and response are
cyclical in nature. Fifth, instructional cues play an
integral role in leading students into meaningful ways of
participation, even in this supportive framework. Sixth,
higher ability readers serve as role models in reader
response activities for less capable readers. Seventh,
the nature of the algorithm enables the reader to engage
in the expansion-contraction process at a conscious level
of awareness.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: USE OF THE CLOZE PROCEDURE AS A CRITERION FOR EVALUATING
THE APPLICABILITY OF SELECTED READABILITY FORMULAS TO
SCIENCE READING MATERIALS
Pub No: 7206494
Author: STEPHENS, ROBERT GERALD
Degree: PHD
School: INDIANA STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1971
Pages: 130
Source: DAI-A 32/11, p. 6020, May 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: USE OF THE CLOZE PROCEDURE AS A CRITERION FOR MEASURING
THE READABILITY OF SELECTED PATIENT EDUCATION MATERIALS
FOR OLDER ADULTS.
Pub No: 7723406
Author: HOLCOMB, CAROL ANN
Degree: PHD
School: OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1977
Pages: 128
Source: DAI-A 38/05, p. 2572, Nov 1977
Subject: EDUCATION, HEALTH (0680)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: USE OF THE CLOZE PROCEDURE WITH THAI SCHOOL CHILDREN: AN
EXPLORATORY STUDY OF READABILITY AND INDIVIDUAL
DIFFERENCES IN READING
Pub No: 7219919
Author: RUFENER, JANTORN BURANABANPOTE
Degree: PHD
School: UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
Date: 1972
Pages: 117
Source: DAI-A 33/06, p. 2774, Dec 1972
Subject: EDUCATION, EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY (0525)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: USING READING MISCUE ANALYSIS TO INVESTIGATE PUBLISHERS'
SUGGESTED READABILITY LEVELS FOR ELEMENTARY SCIENCE
TEXTBOOKS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY.
Pub No: 7523721
Author: WOFFORD, BARBARA ANN
Degree: EDD
School: VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1975
Pages: 126
Source: DAI-A 36/05, p. 2514, Nov 1975
Subject: EDUCATION, GENERAL (0515)

------------------------------------------------------------

Title: VALIDATION OF ASSIGNED GRADE LEVEL OF SELECTED STATE-
APPROVED SECONDARY TEXTBOOKS USING SELECTED READABILITY
FORMULAS
Pub No: 8214777
Author: STONEHOCKER, LOYA VERNE
Degree: EDD
School: BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 156
Source: DAI-A 43/03, p. 656, Sep 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION (0727)
Abstract: State-approved textbooks in Utah are assigned grade
levels using a variety of criteria. The hypotheses tested
were (1) there will be no difference between state-
assigned readability levels and those obtained through
the application of selected readability formulas for
randomly selected secondary textbooks in the randomly
selected content areas of careers and occupations,
distributive education, home economics, industrial
education and social studies in the 1980-81 Utah state-
approved textbook list; (2) there will be no difference
between the readability grade level of a given subject
and each of the others; and (3) there will be no
difference between the readability grade levels
determined by any given formula and each of the other
formulas, estimates or graphs. The information from
selected textbooks was typed into a computer and then
analyzed using the Dale-Chall, Flesch, Fry, Gunning-Fog,
Raygor and SMOG readability formulas or estimates. The
data were then analyzed using an analysis of variance.
The three hypotheses were rejected.


------------------------------------------------------------

Title: VALIDITY OF CLOZE PROCEDURE AS AN INDEX OF READABILITY OF
ARABIC LANGUAGE READING MATERIALS
Pub No: 8216169
Author: SESI, GEORGETTE HERMIZ
Degree: EDD
School: WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY
Date: 1982
Pages: 194
Source: DAI-A 43/02, p. 411, Aug 1982
Subject: EDUCATION, READING (0535)
Abstract: This study investigated the applicability, the validity,
and the reliability of Cloze Procedure as an index of
readability of Arabic language reading materials.
The Cloze tests consisted of nine passages randomly
selected from Arabic reading textbooks written for grades
five, seven, and nine. Three passages represented each
grade, and each passage was turned into two cloze tests.
The deletion process was preceded by randomly selecting
numbers from one to five. Deletion began at the second
sentence starting with the word that matched the number
drawn and was followed by the deletion of every fifth
word thereafter.
The study was completed in May 1981 in Baghdad, Iraq. The
subjects (121 males and 119 females) were twelfth grade
students enrolled in five high schools randomly selected
for this study.
All tests were scored in Southfield, Michigan, U.S.A., by
the investigator. The statistical package for the
analysis of variance and for the Duncan Multiple Range
Test at Wayne State University Computer and Data
Processing Center was used, and the following results
were reported:
The means among the three grades were significantly
different. The means of grade five were higher than the
means of grade seven and nine.
The means of the three passages per grade level were
significantly different. There was no significant
difference between Cloze I and Cloze II.
Interaction between grade and passage effects was
significantly different. However, the interaction between
grade and Cloze effects, between passage and Cloze
effects, and among grade, passage, and Cloze effects was
not significant.
It was concluded that the Cloze Procedure was an
applicable, valid and reliable index of readability of
Arabic language reading materials.
It is recommended that, in order to establish the
reliability and the validity of Cloze, this study should
be replicated with more subjects using different grades,
passages, and institutions.

2003-12-08 20:05:21



   

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